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Station to Space: China Space Launch Site

via:博客园     time:2019/9/18 9:02:09     readed:76

A series of rockets, such as Jiuquan, Xichang, Taiyuan and Wenchang, are launched from here, and the satellite (or spacecraft) is sent to space to realize the Chinese nation's millennium.


China's land space launch site. Source: Network

Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center

Jiuquan Satellite launch Center, founded in 1958, is the earliest space launch site in China. It is located in the Badan Jilin Desert, the climate is dry, it is very suitable for space launch.


Jiuquan satellite launch center plan. Source: network


Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. Source: Network

Jiuquan launch site is not in Jiuquan City, Gansu Province, but in Ejina Banner of Alashan League in Inner Mongolia Autonomous region.


Location of Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. Source: Tencent Map Modification

So why? On the one hand, China's satellite launching center used to be named after a relatively large and well-known city nearby. Similarly, Xichang Satellite Launching Center was not located in Xichang City, and Taiyuan Satellite Launching Center was not located in Taiyuan City. On the other hand, in the early 1950s and the late 1960s to 1970s, Ejina Banner and other places in the western Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region were under the jurisdiction of Jiuquan, Gansu Province.


map of administrative divisions of China (1969-1978). Source: Headlines.

Jiuquan Satellite Launch Cente

At 2135 hours on April 24, 1970, China's first man-made satellite was successfully launched here by the Long March 1 launch vehicle, making China the fifth country in the world to independently develop and launch satellites after the Soviet Union, the United States, France and Japan.


The Orientino-1 satellite. source: network


The Long March 1 launch vehicle is ready to launch the Dongfanghong 1 satellite. Source: Holographic Network


Dongfanghong 1 satellite was launched. Source: network


People's Daily reported the successful launch of Dongfanghong 1 satellite. Source: Holographic Network

On November 26, 1975, China's first recoverable satellite


Return satellite. Source: Network

At that time, China's manned space project was also in full swing, but was later suspended for various reasons.

At that time, the satellites were sent into space at the Jiuquan Satellite launch Center, in addition to the long March series of carrier rockets, as well as the little-known storm series carrier rockets. On September 20, 1981, a storm rocket successfully sent three satellites to different orbit, making China the third master in the world.


Storm rocket

Jiuquan Satellite launch Center is best known for manned spaceflight

China restarted manned space flight on September 21, 1992. On November 20, 1999, Shenzhou I, China's first unmanned test spacecraft, was launched into space by a Long March 2F rocket in Jiuquan.

At 9: 00 on October 15, 2003, at the Jiuquan Satellite launch Center, Shenzhou V, launched by the long March 2F rocket, carried Yang Liwei, China's first astronaut, into space, making China the third country after the Soviet Union and the United States to carry out manned spaceflight independently.


Shenzhou V was launched. Source: Network


Yang Liwei displayed the five-star red flag and the United Nations flag in space. Source: network


Yang Liwei returned to the ground safely. Source: Network

September 25,2008, launched in Jiuquan Satellite Center Shenzhou VII spacecraft, successfully achieved China's first.

So far, Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center is the only space launch site for manned spaceflight in China.

In addition to manned spaceflight, China's space laboratory


Tiangong 1 was launched on September 29, 2011. Source: Xinhua News Agency

It is worth mentioning that at the Jiuquan Satellite launch Center, there are not only


Preparations for launch of the hyperbola-1 Yaoyao-1 launch vehicle. Source: Network

Xichang Satellite Launch Center

Xichang satellite launch center built in


Xichang Satellite Launch Center. Source: Network

The Xichang Satellite Launch Center is located in the deep, hidden and distance of the Liangshan Mountain in the Mianning County, Liangshan, Sichuan Province.


Xichang Satellite Launch Center. Source: Map screenshot of Tencent

Xichang Satellite launch Center is one of the most open launch sites in China, where the climate is pleasant, the winter is warm and the summer is cool, and the winter and spring are dry season, which is especially suitable for space launch.

Xichang Satellite launch Center is the main geosynchronous orbit (GEO) satellite launch base in China, and the main carrier rocket is


Orbits of man-made earth satellites. Source: Network


Long March-3-B launch vehicle. source: network

On April 8,1984, in the Xichang Satellite Launch Center, the first geostationary satellite in China was successfully launched by the Long March 3 launch vehicle

The Xichang Satellite Launch Center is the first launch site to undertake the launch of the overseas commercial launch from the United States, launched on 7 April 1990.


July 16, 1990

But in 1999, the United States issued the so-called Cox Report, which prohibited China from launching any satellite containing American parts for unnecessary charges. At that time, most of the satellites purchased by the world were made by the United States, and China's commercial launches were at a low ebb. Some Chinese-funded Hong Kong-based Asian Satellite Communications Corporation purchased US-made communications satellites that could only be launched by Russia.

But by may 14,2007, the chinese-made nigerian communications satellite was launched by the long march 3b launch vehicle at the xichang satellite launch center, enabling china to export its entire satellite.

Later, China exported satellites to Venezuela, Laos, Bolivia, Pakistan, Algeria and Belarus.

On December 21, 2013, Bolivian President Morales watched the first Bolivian communications satellite made in China at the Xichang Satellite launch Center.


The President of Bolivia is at the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. Source: Northeast News Network

Xichang Satellite Launch Center, the first lunar probe in China, October 24,2007.


Chang'e 1. Source: Baidu Encyclopedia


In addition, the Beidou navigation satellite, which we are familiar with, is launched from here.


Beidou navigation satellite

Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center

Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center is located on the Loess Plateau in Lanxian County, Xinzhou City, Shanxi Province. It was built in 1967, earlier than Xichang Satellite Launch Center, but the satellite launch time was later than Xichang.


Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center (Source: Baidu Encyclopedia)


Plane map of Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center. Source: Baidu Encyclopedia

Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center mainly launches solar synchronous orbit satellites, and the main carrier rocket is the Long March 4 series carrier rocket.


Long March series part of the launch vehicle. source: network

In the future, the new generation of Long March 6 launch vehicle will gradually take over the work of Long March 4 launch vehicle.


The first flight of the long March 6 rocket on September 20, 2015

On September 7, 1988, the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center launched its first satellite. The first meteorological satellite, Fengyun 01, was successfully put into solar synchronous orbit by the Long March 4 launch vehicle.


Fengyun 1 satellite 01 was launched. Source: Weicheng Meteorological

In the 1990s, the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center used the Long March II C carrier rocket to launch several Iridium satellites for Iridium Satellite Company of the United States. Later, cooperation was terminated due to the obstruction of the United States Government.

On October 14, 1999, the Earth Resources Satellite 01, developed jointly by China and Brazil, was successfully launched at Taiyuan Satellite launch Center. At present, China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite has launched more than six satellites, which has been praised as


China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite. Source: Network

Wenchang space launch site

Wenchang Space Launch Site is located on the coast of Longlou Town, Wenchang City, Hainan Province. It is the first coastal launch base in China.


Wenchang space launch site. Source: network

Compared with other space launch sites in China, Wenchang space launch site has obvious advantages:

First of all, the latitude of Wenchang space launch site is 19 degrees 36 minutes north latitude, while Jiuquan is 40 degrees 58 minutes north latitude, Taiyuan 38 degrees 51 minutes, Xichang 28 degrees 15 minutes. At low latitudes, the linear speed of the earth's rotation is larger, and the linear velocity that the spacecraft can rely on when launched is large, thus saving fuel and increasing the rocket carrying capacity by more than 10% under the same fuel. Most of the world's satellite launch centers (or space launch sites) choose to be at low latitudes, an important launch site in the former Soviet Union.

Secondly, it is convenient for transportation. The space launch sites such as Xichang, China, are inland. The rockets are transported by train and need to cross the tunnel and bridge. Because of the limitation of the bridge and tunnel, the diameter of the rocket can not be too large, so the large and heavy rockets can not be used. The seaside can be transported by ship without restraint.

There is also Wenchang space launch site east, south of the sea, do not worry about rocket wreckage falling, injuring residents and damaging houses.

As early as the 1970s, the state had envisaged the construction of a launch site in Hainan. Because of the severe situation at that time, it was not implemented. After the 1980s, a sounding rocket launch site was built in Hainan. Wenchang Space Launch Site was constructed in 1994.

On June 25, 2016, the long March 7 carrier rocket successfully launched its first flight at the Wenchang Space launch site, the first launch mission of the Wenchang Space launch site.


Long March 7 Launch vehicle. Source: Baidu Encyclopedia

On April 20, 2017, the Long March 7 rocket sent China's first cargo spacecraft, Tianzhou 1, into space at Wenchang Space Launch. On April 27, the Tianzhou 1 cargo spacecraft successfully docked with Tiangong 2 Space Laboratory.

On November 3, 2016, the Long March V launch vehicle made its first flight at Wenchang Space Launch Site.


Long March 5 carrier rocket. Source: network

At the end of 2019, Chang'e-5 will be sent to the moon by the Long March V launch vehicle at Wenchang Space Launch Site to carry out lunar sampling and return.


Chang'e 5 Lunar Sampling Return Diagram. Source: China Aerospace Science and Technology Group

In 2020, China's Mars exploration will also start here.


China Mars Explorer. Source: China Aerospace Science and Technology Group

In the future, Wenchang Space launch site will become the space launch site of China, where China's deep space exploration will start, and the construction of China's space station will begin here.

Marine Space Launch Site

In addition to the above onshore space launch sites, China also has a movable maritime launch site. At 12:06 on June 5, 2019, the long March 11 solid carrier rocket sent seven satellites into different orbit on the offshore launch platform of the Yellow Sea. Thus, China's first maritime launch was a complete success.


Long March 11 solid launch vehicle launched at sea. Source: CCTV News

Compared with land launch, the biggest advantage of sea launch is movable, can be moved to the equator 0 degrees to launch, thus saving rocket fuel and improving rocket carrying capacity. The second is surrounded by the sea, do not worry about rocket wreckage accidents.

Jiuquan, Xichang, Taiyuan, Wenchang and sea launch sites, these space launch sites carry the space dream of the Chinese nation.

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