[地名] [挪威] Erdal
Writing: Zhang Hua
Recently, Huawei was sanctioned by the United States, Ren Zhengfei's statement by the major media attention. Ren Zhengfei is full of confidence in Huawei's 5G technology:
It is worth noting that Ren Zhengfei mentioned in an interview that Huawei's achievements in 5G can not be separated from the contribution of a Turkish scientist:
So what did the Turkish scientist do? How does this relate to Huawei's 5G technology?
5G Foundation: Polarization Code
In 1958, Erdal.
In this sense, Alekan is well-known academically. After graduating from PhD and returning to Bilken University in Turkey, Alekan developed pioneering technology.
At Bilken University, a not-so-famous university, Alekan sharpened his sword for ten years and finally succeeded in 2008 when he published a 5G communication code.Polarization codeTechnical scheme.
His paper published in 2008Journal of IEEEThere are 23 pages in the article, but he is the only author.
After this article was published, it was noticed by Huawei.
Huawei has a lot of scientists with excellent research abilities. They evaluated Alekan's paper and realized that it was very important becauseThe technology can be used for 5G coding.
Ren Zhengfei presented the award to Alekan in honor of his outstanding contribution to the development of human communications.
Therefore, Huawei has made contact with Alekan, applied for a number of patents on the basis of this technology, and blocked a number of patents on the basis of Alekan's polarization code. The international competition of scientific and technological enterprises is not only a dispute of patent but also a dispute of interest. It must be strengthened first.
What is the mathematical principle of polarization codes? You can see the following picture.This articleIt may take some basic knowledge of communication and coding to understand. Of course, if you have the knowledge of linear algebra or group theory, then it only takes time to understand the principle of polarization codes.
In fact, polarization codes seem very complex, but they are essentially matrix multiplications, for example, if you want to have four bits of [u].OneUTwoUThreeUFour] Encoding with polarization codes gives you another 4-bit signal [x].OneXTwoXThreeXFour] This is equivalent to the following matrix multiplication:
5G Standard: Teacher-apprentice Dispute
Huawei has ushered in a vital 5G standard vote after developing 5G communication technology on the basis of polarization code.
In last year's 5G standard vote, Huawei's favorite polarization code was blocked by Qualcomm, which praised it.Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Codes。
And the author of LDPC code is Gallagher, Alekan's mentor.
Therefore, behind the dispute over 5G communication standards is a technical dispute between a pair of teachers and apprentices. Of course, on the surface, there are disputes over technology, and behind them there are also disputes over national interests.
The communications giants represented by Qualcomm in the United States naturally tend to use the coding method proposed by the Americans, but the newcomers represented by Huawei also hope to take the lead in the formulation of this international standard. In the formulation of 5G standard, a compromise scheme has been formed after complex game.
LDPC code becomes the coding scheme of data channel and polarization code becomes the coding scheme of control channel.
So, this is a realistic result. Although Huawei has not won, it has not lost. Qualcomm is the same, the final result is that we all develop 5G together, no one should kick anyone away.
From a technical point of view, LDPC was invented in 1963, but limited by the hardware conditions at that time, and because of the lack of viable decoding algorithm, it was basically ignored for more than 30 years. But with the progress of technology, especially after Beru et al. discovered Turbo code in 1993 and used it in 3G and 4G communication, inspired by Turbo code, people improved LDPC code. The results show that LDPC codes perform better than Turbo codes.
Therefore, LDPC code is considered as a mature old-fashioned coding scheme, and the effect is really good. However, the advantage of polarization code is that it can be implemented with a small chip, which is more suitable for 5G small base station. Moreover, the hardware of this coding method is commercialized and the equipment cost is low, so it is also very competitive.
As mentioned above, Huawei's polarization codes are mainly used for 5G control channel coding. What does this mean?
The control channel is used to transmit instructions and synchronize data, which is like when we open the computer, the computer needs to read the information on the hard disk, which needs to power the hard disk. This power-on process is transmitted by the control signal.
So, to put it simply, Huawei's 5G polarization code scheme has won.
In terms of the amount of data, the amount of data in the control channel is much smaller, and the length of the code block is generally between 20 and 300 bits.
Therefore, LDPC codes are more successful in terms of data size, but this does not mean that the polarization codes have failed. After all, polarization code is a novice, and has not yet been practiced in practice, so we can only wait for 5G large-scale commercial use, then we will evaluate the superiority of polarization code is really good.
For polarization codes, the coding complexity of N-length data blocks is O (N log N). According to Shannon's criterion, this has reached the optimal limit of 5G coding.
Therefore, Huawei is optimistic about the future of polarization codes because of its theoretical advantages. And Huawei has gone a long way in 5G industrialization. Therefore, it is not difficult to understand Huawei's undertone: Huawei has the confidence to win even in the trade war because it has mastered the technology.