Original title: & ldquo; 996 & rdquo; & “ struggle spirit rdquo;, how to see abroad?
Global Times reporters abroad: Yao Meng, Jiang Feng, Zheng Qi, Mu Jishan, Wen: Zhu Lijun, Zhang Ke, Bai Yiyi
Editor's Note:Domestic discussions on “################################################## This is the beginning of a programmer's Tucao, because of the participation of the Internet, such as Ma Yun, Liu Qiangdong, and the “violent” topic, triggered a big discussion about overtime culture. In fact, overtime is a phenomenon that deserves attention at the global level. It is not only the domestic companies that are covered by 996 —— Silicon Valley of the United States is known as the “workaholic” culture. But 996 is equal to “Struggle”“Struggle spirit”? Is it inevitable at a certain stage of development 996? From the developed countries in Europe and America to emerging economies, to East Asian countries in the same Confucian cultural circle, the Global Times reporters in many countries conducted investigations.
French: Employers should be careful when telling you these high-sounding words.
In the United States, overtime work is overwhelmed by the media
On the issue of working hours, the French “seriously” is notorious. According to the experience of the reporters of the Global Times in the French trade union organization, the French believe that an important basis for labor rights is working hours. The eight-hour system in which European and American laborers exchanged a series of struggles in the 19th and 20th centuries is inviolable. This has nothing to do with "ideal""" struggle.
For 996, Trimore, of the French Labor Democracy Coalition, told the Global Times reporter that employers should be careful when telling you these high-sounding words. Their purpose is to exploit more of your surplus value. The harder you fight, the more he earns. many. He cautioned that anyone who pays for work must get a benefit. Overtime work without overtime pay is absolutely not allowed in France.
A person in charge of the French Employers’ Association told reporters that controlling employees’ working hours and accurately accounting for labor productivity are important links for enterprises to improve their competitiveness. He believes that after the extension of working hours, the productivity of employees will decline due to fatigue accumulation, which is especially avoided in high-tech enterprises and some research and development areas.
966 The discussion also caught the attention of the French media. The "Legalo" published the title on the front page on the 14th, and the economic version reported on the overtime work of Chinese companies. The topic did not hesitate to use the "going to hell" adjective, showing the attitude of local public opinion. .
Of course, the issue of working hours cannot be generalized. French companies have an unwritten rule. Responsible, high-paying senior staff often do not accurately calculate working hours, but can arrange work according to their own pace, and many technicians volunteer to work overtime. This is also true.
In another veteran capitalist country, the UK is no stranger to overtime work. According to the statistics of the British General Labor Union, nearly 5 million of the 30 million employed people in the UK work overtime without pay. Among them, people in the teacher industry have the most unpaid overtime work per week, which is about 11.2 hours, followed by the lawyer industry, the financial industry, the architect industry, and the media industry.
Suffolk, who is engaged in energy trade in London, told the Global Times that he worked overtime on Tuesdays and Thursdays, mainly because some public holidays in the UK are on Mondays and Fridays, and many people will be after the holidays. The first day or holiday will be on hand to handle the work piled up on hand. But for 996, Suffolk said it was difficult to accept, because occasionally overtime became a normal phenomenon, which would make you lose more family life, which is not compensated by extra compensation.
For the British, the historical memory of overtime struggles that can be found dates back to World War II. Londoner Hewitt said that when her parents worked in a military factory, they would work overtime until late in the evening to deal with the Nazi threat. In peacetime, most Britons do not see overtime as a manifestation of personal struggle. “If you think of overtime as a habit, how do you make your employer feel responsible for raising wages and increasing holidays? ”
Speaking of 996, many people think of Silicon Valley in the United States. A friend who works in Silicon Valley told the Global Times reporter that overtime is a common occurrence for him and is “voluntary”. Indeed, overtime is the daily default option for many Silicon Valley people, especially start-ups. But this is not the whole picture of Silicon Valley —— In addition to high wages, there are many people who leave work at 5 pm every day, and large companies that do not work overtime are commonplace. And in Silicon Valley, what is valued is the result, not the length of work; the balance between work and life is not only a personal pursuit, but also advocated by many companies.
Overall, Americans work harder than Europe. According to the OECD, the United States is at the bottom of developed countries in terms of the balance between work and life. For example, compared to the Dutch, Americans work 353 hours a year. The protection of labor welfare in the United States also lags behind that of European countries. But the pursuit of work-life balance in American society is still outstanding. Many media will use the Work-Life Balance Index as a indicator for livable cities, and are keen to report “crazy work” to the health risks and negative impact on work efficiency. For the overtime work of some high-tech enterprises, the media is mostly treated with black materials. Tesla's future factory in California was criticized collectively for its labor intensity.
For overtime, there are different perceptions between different generations in the United States. According to Forbes magazine, Americans born between 1945 and 1960 experienced hardships during their growth, so they paid more attention to stable job opportunities. The so-called work-life balance is not a priority. But the children of this generation are more interested in seeking such things as telecommuting, extended maternity leave or paternity leave, and adequate annual leave.
The reaction of Indian netizens shows "two poles"
The attitude of Latin American countries is "taboo"
As one of the fastest growing economies in the world, India is also facing overtime. UBS has ranked 77 cities around the world in the 2018 Annual Price and Income Report, with Mumbai workers topping the list with an average of 3,315 hours per year, followed by Hanoi and Mexico City. The report also pointed out that the average annual holiday days of Mumbai workers is 10 days, which is the lowest on the list.
In view of this, after a number of Indian media quoted a report from Bloomberg Businessweek on China's “Overtime Work Mode”, Indian netizens talked about it. Some netizens said that this is the reason for "survival of the fittest". Netizen "Shandip · Kumar" is very straightforward, "996 mechanism should be introduced to India, so India's development will be more rapid". A netizen called "Senior Citizen" said that "Ma Yun is absolutely correct …… no work you can't support the family".
Of course, there are also many opposing views. “Hashwardan” said: “There is no disgusting expression,” 996 means the end of creativity. Long hours of work leave employees with no time to upgrade their knowledge structure to achieve self-development, and such companies can fire them one day. “Some companies have been working 6 to 7 days a week, 12 to 15 hours a day. This model makes people gradually lose their interest. If young people die too much, what does the job mean? & rdquo; User " Kamal& rdquo; wrote.
Compared with the entanglement of the Indians, Russia, which is also a member of the "BRIC", is another scene. The Chinese who work in Russia have a deep experience. It is particularly difficult to work in the summer and around New Year's Day, because Russians are almost on vacation.
Mr. Han, the owner of the Chinese private enterprise, told the Global Times reporter that he was very unaccustomed to the Russians when they first started trading in China and Russia. The employed Russian employees always refuse to work overtime on weekends and often take sick leave. Later, he opened a branch office in Russia and gradually accepted the concept of “having a relaxation”.
Russians have loose working hours, both historical and cultural factors, as well as realistic economic and social factors. After the October Revolution of 1917, the People’s Committee set an eight-hour working system. In 1967, the Central Committee of the CPSU adopted a proposal to work five days a week and rest for two days. According to the Russian Labor Law, no matter whether the employer adopts the five-day work system or the six-day work system, the working hours of one week cannot exceed 40 hours. Because of these regulations, employers are extra cautious about working overtime. In today's society, IT engineers have higher hourly wages, and increasing the length of work is not cost-effective for the boss. In addition, employees can also expose their employers because of arrears of wages or working hours. Many foreign companies that do not understand Russian law have been punished for being reported.
More than Russia, in Argentina, Brazil and other emerging economies in South America, if anyone dares to openly support 996, it will immediately be subjected to fierce criticism from the whole society. On the one hand, it is because these countries have no overtime culture at all. Another more important reason is the strong trade union organizations in South America. They will ensure the strict implementation of the Labor Protection Law through demonstrations and negotiations.
I remember a few years ago, several factories in Argentina that were contracted by the Spanish brand Zara were fired from 7 am to midnight, and the news was condemned by the Argentine society and regulators. The factory was immediately sealed up and the demonstrators flocked to the streets to slogan that Zara was the slave owner’s “sweatshop”, which scared Zara’s urgent statement that it’s “completely ignorant”. Thoroughly check downstream manufacturers.
On the whole, there are very few overtime jobs in Latin America. Most shops are closed for the weekend, because weekends and holidays are “family time”, and the Latin American family concept is very heavy, even if the company gives three times the overtime and retiring arrangements. There was once a local Chinese travel agency owner in Argentina who complained to reporters that they could not find a job every holiday and had to go to the office to “sit in town”.
South Korea's reduction in overtime is still not up to <; passing line”
Japanese entrepreneurs' intergenerational differences are obvious
South Korea is a country where overtime culture is prevalent, but this culture has nothing to do with “struggling”. According to the OECD, Koreans have an average annual working time of 2069 hours in 2016, which is second only to Mexico (2255 hours) in the organization. McKinsey's survey conducted in the same year showed that Koreans' work time was inversely proportional to efficiency. The productivity efficiency of about 11 hours a day was only 45%, while that of work was 58% for 9 hours.
South Korea's KBS TV station disclosed in a talk show that Korean office workers hate overtime culture and can't get off work on time. To a certain extent, it is Confucianism. Respondents said that when they got off work, they basically left in accordance with the level of their duties, namely department manager & mdash; director & mdash; agent & mdash; director & mdash; ordinary staff; the quality of the boss is also the weather vane of getting off work.
In South Korea, as the pace of society accelerates and competition intensifies, the events of “overwork death” or “too suicidal suicide” are often reported in newspapers, and nurses, IT industry personnel, radio and television directors, and home delivery staff are gradually becoming High-risk groups. To this end, since 2017, the Korean government has begun to improve this situation. In 2018, Congress passed the Labor Standards Act amendment, which reduced the maximum working hours of the week from 68 hours to 52 hours.
According to data released by the official Korean government in March, household education spending in Korea increased by 3.2% in 2018, and entertainment spending increased by 4.6%. The reason is related to the dividends brought about by shortening working hours since July last year. In the McKinsey report of May last year, the corporate culture of Korean companies has improved compared with two years ago, but it has not yet reached the international business standard “passing line”.
In the same Confucian cultural circle in Japan, after the 996 topic came, Japan's "Diamond Weekly" commented that the Chinese IT industry's unusually brutal 996 suffered a rare protest. This is the awakening of Chinese workers' rights awareness. But combing the Japanese media commentary will find an interesting phenomenon: the Japanese media focus on whether the workers get the corresponding rewards, but not the 996 system itself. Japan, which once worked overtime, is really not convinced to criticize Chinese companies.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the Japanese appeared in the so-called “post-war revival” and the emergence of the social phenomenon of working overtime. The society pursues “life is work, work is life”; creed, no overtime workers will even be regarded as “alien”. However, since the late 1980s, although the Japanese have no apparent dissatisfaction with “normal overtime”, the ILO’s criticism is fierce. Since then, Japan has taken various measures to reduce overtime in order to maintain its image.
Last July, the OECD report showed that the average annual labor time of Japanese workers has dropped from 1,821 hours in 2000 to 17,100 hours in 2017, lower than Italy (1723 hours). In 2017, the average daily labor time of Japanese people has dropped to 6.98 hours. Objectively speaking, Japan is no longer the country that used to work overtime.
The Global Times reporter interviewed the heads of more than 20 Japanese listed companies and found that elderly respondents generally see their work as fun for adults, and their work intensity exceeds 996. They hope that employees will do the same. Young and middle-aged respondents are mostly in the IT and financial circles. They are very disgusted with overtime work and advocate maintaining a balance between work and life. They are even less likely to ask employees to work overtime. This is in stark contrast to the young and middle-aged bosses of Chinese IT companies. “The talent is so tight, I am afraid that they will run without overtime work, and do everything possible to keep them, let alone to work overtime. ” The chairman of an IT company told reporters.
In the opinion of the reporter, what the company needs is not to rely on the overtime to feel the existence of “social animals”, but “the owner”, who has the ambition and the spirit of ownership.