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At the IBM Think2019 conference on February 12-15, 2019, IBM Chairman, President and CEO Ginni Rometty personally participated in the only sub-forum in addition to the keynote speech and served as the moderator of the dialogue. This is &ldquo Open source: the future of the enterprise and the cornerstone of innovation & quo; sub-forum. In addition to Rometty, there are also Cloud Foundry Executive Director Abby Kearns, Linux Foundation Executive Director Jim Zemlin, Redmonk Co-founder Steve O’ Grady, Morgan Stanley Executive Director Marcelo Labre and AT&T Lab President and CTO Andre Fuetsch.
How important is open source to IBM so that Rometty wants to stand in person and act as a moderator?
In 2018, IBM also spent more than $34 billion to acquire Red Hat Red Hat, a software company focused on open source for 25 years. However, what may surprise the outside world is that the acquisition of Red Hat is not the only IBM investment in open source software. In fact, IBM's investment in the open source world can be traced back to the Linux era, and more than 70% of the well-known WebSphere Application Server is open source, including more than 700 open source components.
In a broad context, IBM participates in thousands of open source projects and communities. In addition to the extensive use of open source code, IBM is one of the companies that contributed the most to open source code to the GitHub organization and code base. IBM's significant contributions to open source projects include contributing Java Runtime J9 as an Eclipse OpenJ9 incubator to the Eclipse Foundation, and contributing OpenLiberty runtime for Java EE and MicroProfile applications to openliberty.io, to open blockchain projects. Hyperledger Fabric contributed source code, contributed serverless platform source code to Apache OpenWhisk, opened the IBM Quantum Computing API Qiskit, opened the IBM AI Fairness 360 toolkit (AIF360) and AI Robustness Toolbox (ART), and opened multiple analytics project sources. The code has become Apache Toree and Apache SystemML, and there have been more than 100 other contributions over the past three years.
Boldly injecting open source for 20 years
IBM's commitment to open source and its practice far exceeds the imagination of many people. IBM is a founding member and top member of many open source communities. It is the founder and strategic supporter of many open source projects and communities, including Linux, Apache, Eclipse, etc. IBM has been promoting open source protocols, open governance and open standards. In the 1990s, IBM paid $1 billion in royalties to support Linux, provided technical resources, and funded the establishment of the 2000 Linux Foundation.
In 1999, IBM helped create the Apache Software Foundation, providing tens of thousands of lines of code and resources to support the Apache Web Server Project. IBM is one of the founding sponsors of the Apache Software Foundation, helping shape the open source licensing and governance practices and contributing to many projects. Since the launch of the Apache Software Foundation, IBM employees have held leadership positions within the organization and on the Apache Software Foundation Board of Directors. For over 20 years, the Apache Software Foundation has nearly 200 projects, including Web technologies, XML, Web services, document processing, mobile, cloud, big data and analytics, serverless and messaging, and it’s clear that IBM has been creating and leading Cooperation and innovation in an open environment.
A typical example that may not be noticed by many people is the Eclipse open source project and foundation. In 2001, IBM developed the Eclipse project and guided the establishment of the 2004 Eclipse Foundation. IBM has contributed a lot of legal advice to source code, developers and open source protocols to the Eclipse open source project. Today's Eclipse is a Java open source development platform that can be integrated into a variety of development languages, including C/C++ and COBOL. , PHP, Android, Python, R, and more. The famous IBM Rational Software Architect is based on Eclipse, which is the foundation of the IBM Java development tools family.
In February 2019, the 15th anniversary of the Eclipse Foundation, Mike Milinkovich, Executive Director of the Eclipse Foundation, wrote that the open source community operating model formed in 2004 when the Eclipse Foundation was founded is very well known today, and in 2004, In fact, it is still very new. When the Eclipse Foundation was founded, there were 50 founding member companies, including IBM, SAP, HP, Intel, etc., and today it has grown to 275, of which IBM and SAP have been strategic participants;
At the beginning of the Eclipse Foundation, there were only 12 open source projects, and today it has grown to 360. The open source Communit (there are larger code contributors to the open source project core modules and system architecture) from the original 150 (essentially all IBM engineers) Today's more than 1,600 broad code contributors; the Eclipse IDE integrated development environment has evolved from the original desktop software development tools to today's rich development scenarios supporting IoT, autonomous driving, geospatial and cloud native Java runtimes; In 2018, with the migration of Java EE from Oracle to the Eclipse Foundation's Jarkarta EE, Eclipse's project reached a record high.
Don't forget, in 2001, IBM contributed $40 million worth of software code (IBM VisualAge) to the Eclipse open source community to the then-established Eclipse Consortium Association, which had gathered 150 leading software developments. Tool vendors, more than 1,200 independent developers in more than 63 countries have been involved in the operation of the Eclipse Association. Eclipse's initial focus is to provide a single, unified experience software development process for all developers and to integrate development tools and environments that include all software development tasks such as testing, performance tuning, and bug elimination. At the time, almost all software development tool vendors were involved. I am in the Eclipse project.
In 2001, James Governor, an analyst at IT consulting firm Illuminata, commented: This is IBM's boldest open source "stakes" Eclipse is free for developers, and its meaning for software development is no less than the meaning of Linux for operating systems.
IBM, on the basis of open source Eclipse, provides commercial development tools and services to support the industry's extensive development of e-business applications based on Web Services, XML and J2EE. Eclipse-based development tools can run on both Windows and Linux systems. Developers no longer need to develop e-business applications on Windows and then port them to Linux environments. Instead, they can be developed directly for Linux environments. Eclipse significantly enhances the productivity of Linux developers and allows developers to develop business applications for enterprise environments.
Establish an open governance ecology
IBM Open Technologies VP Todd Moore, IBM Open Technologies Distinguished Engineer and CTO Chris Ferris co-authored and regularly updated the IBM Open Technology Methodology document, which was updated in October 2018 to indicate that IBM has learned one thing through all open source efforts. It is these open source efforts that enable inclusive and open governance communities that often attract the largest ecosystems and the broadest markets.
IBM believes that open source software projects and communities are important, but open governance is even more important. Many open source projects are operated by one person (or supplier) and are very closed in terms of governance, which severely limits the contributions of others; other projects are more enthusiastic about external contributions, but are still closed when developing technology strategies and directions. Once an open source project has reached a certain level of success, it usually reaches a critical point. If there is no open governance, users will realize the greater risk of being locked or even abandoned by the supplier. Users and contributors want to have a say in decision making, and if they feel that their voice is not being heard, then the project will fail or fork. This usually has an adverse effect on the ecosystem and even the collapse of the community.
The reality is that open technology projects managed under open governance, such as open governance found through the operations of organizations such as Apache, Eclipse, Mozilla, and Linux, are clearly more successful, have longer lives, and are less risky than a single Supplier-controlled projects, or more rigorous in terms of governance. IBM is often involved in open source projects controlled by a single individual or vendor to help them see the value of open governance and the potential for greater success. If IBM can effectively bring projects to open governance, it will significantly increase investment to help ensure project success and work to develop communities and ecosystems.
IBM knows that the water is rising, and IBM's own success is not enough. IBM needs to ensure that many companies can succeed in order to protect a vibrant ecosystem. This reduces the risk for IBM itself and, more importantly, reduces the risk of users embracing open source. In fact, since most enterprise users tend to prefer open source rather than proprietary products, the first step is to try to integrate their own open source stack. However, once the enterprise understands the challenges through practice, it usually moves to and has Collaborate with open source technology vendors with deep skills and experience and a thorough understanding of the relevant communities.
IBM also believes that once enterprise users embark on an open source journey, they need a partner that can help them integrate open source technologies, while partners also have the ability to continue to influence the open source community. Enterprise users expect their open source partners to understand the enterprise environment and the long-term interests of the enterprise, and then match and guide the open source community's technical direction and process to match the company's own interests.
IBM's commitment and contribution to open source is long-term, continuous and beyond imagination in the industry. IBM serves many open source foundation boards, including Linux, Eclipse, Apache, CNCF, Node.js, Hyperledger, etc. Thousands of IBM employees use and contribute open source software. IBM values and is committed to open governance because IBM believes this is the best way to ensure the long-term success and viability of open source projects. IBM developers work on important open source projects every day, making thousands of contributions to hundreds of open source projects every month.
Make everyone benefit
Contrary to many impressions, all of the open source projects and communities in which IBM participates have a notable feature: multi-participation and open governance. This is because the open source project of a single participant is extremely risky. Not long ago, Facebook announced that it would stop Parse (a popular mobile development platform) project, which caused thousands of developers to get into trouble. There are also many cases where developers release some cool features as an open source release and then eventually give up or ignore the open source release for whatever reason.
IBM evaluates open source projects by closely following five aspects of the project: 1) Responsible licensing. Clearly, IBM wants to understand the open source licenses associated with the technology. 2) Participation process that can participate. IBM strives to ensure that there is a well-defined process to welcome the contributions of external contributors. 3) Diversified ecosystems. IBM has confirmed that several vendors and ISVs are offering products based on this technology. 4) Participate in the community. IBM requires a process to increase the technical impact of other contributors in the community. 5) Open governance. IBM evaluates the governance model to determine if it is truly open.
Of course, IBM will also look at technology and assess whether there is architectural fit, but technology can often be fixed and improved over time. The key is for IBM to identify whether there are enough positive factors to secure the investment to help the project achieve true open governance that benefits everyone. IBM has demonstrated a continuing commitment to driving innovation in the open source space, offering a broad portfolio of open source-based products and helping build sustainable, thriving communities and ecosystems around open source projects of greatest concern.
IBM believes that leadership in the open source space is of differentiated value to customers, so that IBM even uses a word to describe itself: “IBM is Open by Design” (IBM is designed for open source).
Focus on business
IBM has invested heavily in strategic, open source projects for security, scalability, robustness, online upgrades, globalization, documentation, continuous integration, and more. IBM also invests in open source open projects that integrate IBM innovation into project capabilities. IBM has made a wide range of other important contributions, including marketing, evangelism, and committee-level committee activities. IBM also often leads the effort to define interoperability and portability, which is critical to the success of any open technology.
In addition to the acquisition of Red Hat, IBM has invested nearly $1 billion over the past five years and has invested in hundreds of open source development, marketing and evangelistic resources. IBM has launched a number of open source open projects that tirelessly help open source organizations and their hosting projects to define and succeed. IBM does this because IBM derives value from these projects and organizations beyond the open source software itself, with much of the revenue coming from a vibrant community and a thriving ecosystem that is built around the focus of open technology. The success of IBM products is directly proportional to the success of the open source project being invested.
IBM is focused on driving interoperability, portability, and many of the most important capabilities for the enterprise. IBM is also focused on contributing IBM innovation to the upstream, and when it's worth equal to strategic projects like OpenStack, it is packaged and externally interacted with APIs and SPIs for enterprise users to use, and IBM will ensure interfaces for these technology definitions ( API and SPI) are completely public.
IBM strives not to create a fork code like "IBM Hyperledger Fabric" or "IBM Kubernetes": the Hyperledger Fabric in the IBM blockchain platform is identical to the Hyperledger structure released by the Hyperledger organization, and IBM integrates Kubernetes and CNCF in the IBM Cloud. The code is the same, the Docker included in the IBM Container Service is the same as the Docker released by the community, and Cloud Foundry is the same code as the Cloud Foundry Foundation. The added value of IBM is that it integrates all of these open source features to implement the IBM Cloud.
IBM invests in community code for strategic technologies and ensures that patches and new features are added upstream, rather than adding additional complexity or relying on IBM to independently maintain different versions of the work. When IBM wants to add extensibility that leverages the different capabilities of IBM (or other companies), it creates the necessary APIs or SPIs in the community. IBM also invests in ensuring that these extension points are not abused to create the possibility of being locked.
Those famous IBM open source projects
Here are some of the most well-known open source projects contributed or contributed by IBM:
Eclipse. In 2001, IBM worked with other companies to create the Eclipse Foundation's predecessor, the Eclipse Consortium, through the initial licensing of the Eclipse Java IDE framework. IBM's goal for the Eclipse Foundation is similar to that of Apache: creating a secure collaborative and innovative environment under open governance. There are now more than 360 projects on Eclipse. Similarly, open governance provides a place to attract open source developers for open collaboration and innovation.
Java. Back in the earliest days, IBM was one of the early adopters and contributors to Java. IBM has played an important role in helping shape the Java language and runtime as well as the J2EE specification and Sun Microsystems. Over the years, IBM has helped drive Java open source, making OpenJDK the premier open source Java. Recently, IBM has open sourced the J9 runtime, a high-performance, low-memory Java Virtual Machine (JVM) for cloud optimization, and the Liberty runtime for Java EE and MicroProfile applications, which is open to WebSphere. basis. IBM will continue to lead and contribute to the establishment of the Eclipse Foundation Specification Process, which will replace the Java Community Process (JCP) previously used for Jakarta EE.
Linux. In 2000, IBM partnered with other key industry leaders to establish the Linux Foundation and become its founding platinum sponsor. Of course, IBM's investment goes far beyond sponsorship. Over the years, IBM has been and will continue to be a leader in the Linux community, investing hundreds of engineering resources in the Linux kernel and many collaborative projects with more than 80 Linux foundations today, some of which have played an important role in the startup process. effect.
Cloud is born. In July 2015, following the release of OCI, IBM, Google, Docker, Weaveworks, Red Hat, etc. launched the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) to provide an open governance model for Google's Kubernetes project. This is IBM. A key component of cloud and other technology strategies for cloud-native applications. Since then, the organization has flourished under the leadership of CNCF Chairman, IBM's Todd Moore, and projects include Kubernetes, etcd, rkt, fluentd, containerd, and gRPC. Because of its relevance to the IBM cloud strategy, IBM is increasing its investment and contributions to CNCF technology, especially Kubernetes.
Istio. The collaboration between IBM and Google on Docker, Kubernetes and CNCF has also brought additional results. IBM and Google partnered with Lyft to merge IBM's Amalgam8, Lyft's Envoy, and Google's service controls. The result is the Istio project, the top-level abstraction for routing and policy management for cloud-native microservices. The goal is to eventually migrate Istio to CNCF to ensure open governance of this important and increasingly popular project.
Libcontainer. In the past few years, IBM has been one of the main contributors to Docker. The three IBM developers have earned respect from their peers at Docker and have been appointed as maintenance staff. Docker established the Open Container Initiative in June 2015, and IBM became one of the founding sponsors. Docker contributed Libcontainer and Docker image and transport format specifications for this calculation. Since its inception, IBM has been one of OCI's major contributors.
Containerd. In December 2016, Docker contributed Containerd to CNCF. Containerd is a core container runtime component that manages the full container lifecycle of containers on managed host systems, and two IBM employees have been qualified as maintainers of container projects, demonstrating IBM's leadership in open source.
Knative. Google announced a Knative project developed in close collaboration with IBM and many other major vendors in the serverless and platform as a service areas. Knative provides building blocks to provide serverless functionality for Kubernetes. IBM believes this will be a key technology and is working closely together in the community to develop platforms such as Cloud Foundry and OpenWhisk into Knative-based platforms.
OpenWhisk. When Amazon launched AWS Lambda in 2014, it marked the potential for change in function-as-a-service (FaaS) or serverless computing. Many companies are beginning to explore this area, including Google, Microsoft and many other companies, and IBM is no exception. In early 2015, IBM Research began working on developing powerful serverless features for the IBM Cloud. IBM recognizes that in order for IBM serverless work to be seen as a viable alternative to proprietary AWS Lambda products, open source is required under open governance to develop a vibrant community and ecosystem around the open source project. In February 2016, IBM opened up a serverless platform and named it OpenWhisk. As interest in OpenWhisk continues to grow, IBM partnered with partners such as Adobe and Red Hat in November 2016 to build Apache OpenWhisk as an incubator.
Artificial intelligence and machine learning. IBM recently opened some key AI technologies, including: AI Fair 360 Toolbox (AIF360), an open source software toolkit that helps detect bias in detection and machine learning models; Adversarial Robustness tools Box, an attack and defense method for quickly creating and analyzing machine learning models; Deep Learning Framework (FfDL) is a deep learning-as-a-service platform for providing TensorFlow, Caffe, PyTorch, etc. on Kubernetes.
Hyperledger (superbook). In 2015, IBM recognized the huge potential of blockchain technology as it is the underlying technology of Bitcoin. IBM research in this area concluded that the blockchain technology platform at the time was not suitable for enterprises. As a result, IBM set out to build a new blockchain platform that takes into account enterprise needs —— a platform that can be used in highly regulated environments.
IBM believes this important technology should not be controlled by any single vendor, so it has partnered with the Linux Foundation to build Hyperledger, the fastest growing project in the Linux Foundation. IBM contributed 44,000 lines of code and built the first Hyperledger project, Hyperledger Fabric, under open governance. Since then, Hyperledger has hatched another nine projects. Hyperledger Fabric was the first to incubate, the first to become "active" state, the first project to reach version 1.0.0 (June 2017). Nearly 300 engineers from 40 companies participated in the release of four Fabic versions, demonstrating the value of developing open source under open governance.
With this in mind, you know why IBM Chairman, President and CEO Ginni Rometty will personally host IBM Think 2019, "Open Source: The Future of Enterprise and the Cornerstone of Innovation". Open source is not only important to IBM, but IBM is open for the sake of openness! Because open source is the most widely available, and this is the secret of enterprise-class IT success — many are considered to be the most comprehensive compatibility of proprietary technologies and products, whether it is Oracle Database VMware virtualization software, IBM middleware, and Microsoft operating systems are all just as successful, except that in the past, a vendor-led compatibility effort was being replaced by community open standards led by the current open source community. The success of commercial software companies in the future is to participate in the multi-party governance of the open source open community and provide commercial solutions and services based on open source open technologies.
Just as IBM Think 2019 “Open Source: The Future of Enterprise and the Cornerstone of Innovation”, the guests agreed on the sub-forum: Open source software is engulfing the world!
1, IBM & rsquo;s approach to open technology, Oct. 2018, https://developer.ibm.com/articles/cl-open-architecture-update/
2, Eclipse Foundation: 15 Years Young, Feb. 2019, https://blogs.eclipse.org/post/mike-milinkovich/eclipse-foundation-15-years-young
3, IBM Donates $40 Million of Software to Open Source Community, Nov. 2001, https://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/1025.wss