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Titanium Media Note: Recently, related to "3G standards on the 5G, why Lenovo did not vote for Huawei" a topic was heated speculation. On May 16, Liu Chuanzhi, Yang Yuanqing and Zhu Linan issued a joint letter on the official WeChat of Lenovo Group:Action, swear to win Lenovo honor defense!” Respond: Regarding the 3GPP voting, Lenovo’s voting principle has no problem and implementation has no problem. Some media speculated that the joint letter was written by Liu Chuanzhi.
At the 3rd session of the 87th meeting of the 3GPP in November 2016, Polar, which China promoted, took the control code under the eMBB scenario with monopoly advantages. This is a key step for China to participate in the production of international standards. During this process, Lenovo and Motorola also voted for Huawei.
However, according to the titanium media, some netizens questioned whether Lenovo did not support the Chinese company’s plans. In response, “Legging” was confusing. “Lenovo rumors did not mention long-term voting. At the time, many companies voted for Huawei. ”. According to recalls from the voting site personnel, there were two ballots at that time. Lenovo voted against the long code proposal and voted for it in the short code.
The author of the following article, Dai Hui, is also a veteran Huawei. He believes that this matter is superficially the 5G communication standard, but behind it is the big country game. You can think of it, but we still need to look at it with a high degree of rationality. Lenovo has no interest in us.
The surface is the 5G communication standard, behind which is the game of the big country.
A few days ago, I wrote an article "The Legend of 5G Standard Lenovo Voting, Huawei veterans told the story behind the participation of Chinese companies in the development of international communication standards." Many comments I was very touched. Everyone said that the G3 that had previously blamed China Mobile was not defensive, but it did not know that it was making a contribution to the Chinese-led 3G standard. Later, unless China Mobile miscalculates my charges, I will not blame him again.
There are also feelings: Each of us actually contributed to China’s position in international standards. Without such a large market in China, without the active support of the government, it is impossible for the Chinese to progress so quickly in standard setting.
Some readers also asked whether Lenovo supports Huawei in the 5G standard voting. Taking into account the original is too professional, if there is no technical background to read it is not easy, I want to use the big white language to restore it again, you know, this surface is the 5G communication standard, but behind the big game.
Standards, patents, cross-licensing
In fact, communication standards are all public, and everyone can do development. If you play yourself, of course, there is no problem.
The standard will involve patents embedded in various companies. If you are not enough to play, you have to go out and sell. That will involve the issue of patent licensing. If you do not talk about this, you cannot sell it.
If you have already buried a considerable amount of patents early in the standard discussion and development process, then of course you can cross-authorize with other companies, and everyone can talk about good discussions.
There is a saying well: "First-class companies sell standards, second-rate companies sell technology, and third-rate companies sell products." "Anyone who masters the standards will be able to control the world-wide discourse power in the communications field." For this reason, countries have invested a lot of energy and financial resources, and competition has become increasingly fierce.
Everyone is playing a mobile phone. This gadget can also be called: a mobile communication smart terminal.
China has experienced the development of 1G blank, 2G follow-up, 3G breakthrough, and 4G synchronization in the field of mobile communications. Today, China is expected to become one of the leaders in the 5G era.
In terms of 1G and 2G, China has no say in terms of standards. 3G achieved a breakthrough, and then it developed quickly. Recently, many of the recent discussions on the Internet were 5G standards. It may be that Chinese companies are already in the room.
Behind this, China's Ministry of Information Industry has made tremendous efforts, and each of us has also contributed!
5G standard vote, the most hilarious thing these days
Compared with 4G, 5G will have better bandwidth and better real-time performance. In the future, it will be possible to drone through 5G.
By the way, the small piece you want can be finished in a flash.
According to the 3GPP organization, Dr. Wan Lei, Director of Huawei's Wireless Network Standards Patent Department (she is also one of the major contributors to Huawei's 5G standard Polar code solution), is a fair, transparent, united, and highly technical organization. Dr. Wan once commented that 3GPP: "Technology has no borders. The success of 3GPP is due to its internationalization. Its Roman Forum-style technical debate is the core mechanism that drives technological optimization toward perfection. I sincerely hope that the spirit of globalization in 3GPP will go back to ancient times.…”
Qualcomm pushed LDPC also because they have been on the LDPC for a long time. The LDPC was originally invented by Robert Gallager, Professor of Information Theory at the University of Massachusetts, MIT. He is a student of the communication leader, Shannon.
The Polar code was invented by Arikan, a student Turkish professor Robert Gallager mentioned above, around the year 2008. It was originally of theoretical value. After the polar code decoding algorithm through the UCSD Professor Vardy's breakthrough improvements began to have practical value. There are a number of companies that have researched polar code in 3GPP, but only Huawei is the company that really looks good and promotes polar code. The Yu Xiaohu team I studied at Southeast University also has some related patents.
Of course, Huawei also has some influence on LDPC, and Qualcomm has some influence on Polar, which is not entirely absolute.
Huawei strongly promotes the application of Polar in the 5G standard. For the 5G control channel, the amount of data transmitted by itself is small, and reliability is more important than speed, which is precisely the Polar code part.
The 3GPP defined 5G is divided into 3 scenarios, including Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), Massive IoT Communication (mMTC) and Low-latency, High-Reliability Communication (uRLLC). The first scenario is the scene with the highest frequency of use, which is used by ordinary people.
Finally, in November 2016, at the 87th meeting of 3GPP, China's Polar, who was the main pusher, took the control code under the eMBB scenario with monopoly advantages. This is a key step for China to participate in the production of international standards. During this process, Lenovo and Motorola also voted for Huawei.
The control channel coding, Huawei is an overwhelming victory (a total of 55 support), Lenovo and Motorola's vote is only icing on the cake, does not affect the final result.
Huawei's statement mentioned: LDPC as a data channel encoding. This is dominated by Qualcomm, but if you look back at history, you will find that the data channel actually has long and short codes, and Huawei has had a great opportunity to deliver.
Among the long codes of the data channel, the LDPC-led LDPC has absolute technical advantages.
In the short code, Qualcomm-led LDPC and Huawei-led Polar are insecure. Eventually Huawei loses.
In the end, Lenovo and its Motorola have not supported Huawei. The network has many different opinions. I have carefully studied the arguments of both parties. This is a bit complicated, but I also understand it. Not bad?
At the 86bth voting meeting on the 5G standard organized by the 3GPP in October 2016, "LDPC", "LDPC Long Code + Polar Short Code", "LDPC Long Code + Turbo Short Code" was determined as The final option for all party representatives to vote (counts against count, not counting the number).
In the voting results, the LDPC long code + Turbo short code was opposed by both Huawei and Qualcomm. At the same time, the Turbo code was the European standard and was widely used in 3G/4G. China and the United States jointly opposed this.
The final choice is between "LDPC" and "LDPC long code +Polar short code". The former is obviously best for Qualcomm. If it is the latter, Huawei can also have a place.
The vote is only negative. "Only LDPC" just harvested 24 votes against Huawei, "LDPC long code +Polar short code" and harvested 27 votes against Qualcomm, Lenovo, and Motorola.
The 86b meeting determined that the data channel long code uses LDPC, short code to be studied.
At the 87th meeting in November 2016, Huawei made its final efforts. This time Lenovo and Motorola supported Huawei but this time it was weak. At the 87th meeting, Lenovo gave support to Huawei's two proposals on data channel short codes. However, due to the fact that the polling power of the Polar camp was not enough, it was opposed by companies such as Qualcomm, Samsung, and Ericsson. Huawei’s proposal was also Did not pass. The final meeting determined that the short code of the data channel also uses LDPC, which is consistent with the long code.
From this we can see that in the 86b meeting, the voting of Lenovo and its Motorola is actually very crucial. If Lenovo supports Huawei, the result will not be the same. However, we should also see that at the 87th meeting, Lenovo did its best to support Huawei.
In 2016, Lenovo's voting on the 5G standard did make us feel uncomfortable, but what made us even more disappointed was the association of Lenovo's literary critics.
1G completely relies on imports
Let's go back to 30 years ago in 1987. In order to connect with Hong Kong and Macau, Guangdong took the lead in building a simulated mobile phone. The phone is thick and heavy like a black brick, and the price is as high as tens of thousands of yuan, commonly known as "brothers".
1G is the era of Big Brother, which was invented by Motorola. It can be imagined that China's base stations and mobile phones are imported from abroad.
Big brothers are very expensive and the rich are showing off. The triad is used as a production tool.
Big Brother uses simulation technology, just like our 90s TV technology. The biggest problem is the easy hacking and eavesdropping.
2G has a product
The world has entered the 2G era. Europe and the United States started PK.
The 2G of Europeans is GSM, which we commonly call Global Link. By the standards promulgated by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), the standards we see are all ETSI phase 1, phase 2, phase 2+ whatever.
Europeans are more democratic, Ericsson, Siemens, and Alcatel are all involved.
In the past, Finland had a company that used wood and cables. They were jealous and dug up a team from Ericsson and started to work on it. He is called Nokia.
China Mobile began using this technology in 1995, provided by Ericsson, Guangdong.
In order to engage in competition, another operator was established, called China Unicom, and also engaged in GSM.
In 1996, Huawei dug up Liu Jiangfeng's team. He had done a great job at the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications once to read all the GSM agreements. On the table, there is an agreement on one side and GRE on the other.
In 1999, Huawei's GSM finally began large-scale commercialization, and finally reached the level of "Samliu Corporation" and can sell products! The project in Fujian is a milestone. Everyone can read my article "Huawei's Long March." Special thanks go to China Mobile Fujian Branch and then Fujian Provincial Governor Xi Jinping.
Two flowers bloom, each one. Recall that the United States 2G: CDMA.
In the United States, Qualcomm was founded in 1985. It transferred the "frequency hopping" technology used by the military to civilian cellular mobile systems. This is what we often hear about CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access). Everything is difficult at the beginning. Qualcomm not only does standards, but also has to do chips, equipment, and mobile phones. Jacobs and his son went shirtless.
This "frequency hopping" technology is very suitable for security purposes, is the mother of CDMA Heidi & middot; Rama from the Nazis "going over", just as atomic bomb technology. She was once a star of a glorious time, known as "the most beautiful woman in the world". She gave the patent free of charge to the U.S. military.
Qualcomm is really bullish, but several operators in the United States have not dared to use this unverified technology. Qualcomm had to go abroad to find mice. The first commercial application of CDMA actually was in 1995 in Hong Kong, China!
The United States Lucent, Motorola, and Canada’s Nortel have all become fans of Qualcomm and developed the North American version of the 2G product CDMA. CDMA entered the hall in North America, and the largest operator was the famous Verizon.
South Korea and Japan were sheltered by the United States and used this technology.
The United States also hopes that China will use CDMA. The Ministry of Information Industry has allowed China Unicom and Gao Tong to talk about patent licensing for a long time. CDMA is a full-process fee, base stations need to receive, and mobile phones have to receive. Wool comes from the sheep and is ultimately the customer of the operator to pay for it, that is, our common people.
Always talked about in 2001, finally negotiated how to pay Qualcomm's "tax" & rdquo; thing.
In 2001, China Unicom launched CDMA on a large scale. However, using IS95 technology, rather than the 1x technology that has just been standardized, ZTE is the only Chinese company that has made a lot of money. Huawei closed the IS95 and gambling on 1x. As a result, he lost his talent on the base station and ate a big duck egg.
The Japanese themselves developed a 2G standard, called PDC, entertaining themselves and then disappeared.
The Japanese also engaged in a communication standard called PHS. China's PHS technology, which was once a fire, was used to buy many devices and mobile phones in Japan. Patent fees were already included.
3G Participation Standard
As early as 2000, 3G was already too hot for fire. All kinds of media together: Since 2G is so successful, 3G will surely succeed!
Or first talk about European and European 3G standards.
At the turn of the century from 1999-2000, Europeans started selling 3G licenses, and operators have smashed their heads.
Europe's 3G standard, scientific name is UMTS, commonly known as global communications, and the core technology is WCDMA.
WCDMA is the meaning of broadband CDMA and has to hand over to Gaotong. It has to be said that CDMA is a good technology and has been recognized by Europeans.
Qualcomm-dominated CDMA can also be upgraded to 3G with a relatively long name, called CDMA 1x EV-DO.
At this time, there was an organization called 3GPP, popular point, that is, the organization for 3G standards. This organization is doing well and it is authoritative. Later, 4G and 5G standards are also set by him.
3G, everyone is really anxious.
The brothers just got started on the phone, they just got started with the short message, and they haven't had a hard time playing data services. What's more, the mobile phone screen is as small as it is, and where is the 3G broadband data service? What's more, Europeans like to "stay away from mobile phones and enjoy life".
By the end of 2000, the IT bubble burst and the European operators were in endless pain. Vodafone, France Telecom, Germany's T-MOBILE, and more.
After France Telecom fell into a huge loss, it began to reduce staff and increase efficiency. It also engaged in strict KPI and elimination at the end. Then many people committed suicide. The French are more romantic and have less psychological abilities.
Unlike our Chinese people, who have suffered hardships, no matter what, they want to live a strong life.
In 2007, the savior of 3G came and it was Apple's Jobs. The Apple APP's APP model has completely mobilized everyone's enthusiasm for using 3G!
The good day for operators who took 3G licenses has finally arrived!
China submitted TD-SCDMA 3G standard
Huawei just sold GSM at the end of 1999 and did not have the energy to participate in the 3G standard.
In the autumn of 2000, I participated in the Asia-Pacific Wireless Conference in Shenzhen as a guest speaker and spoke about Huawei's understanding of the 3G standard and suggestions for operators. At that time, Huawei's 3G R&D did one thing: to learn and digest the 3G standard.
The Ministry of Information Industry sees more long-term and hopes to lead Chinese companies to participate in the global 3G standard setting.
China Mobile is already the world's largest mobile operator. We have the backing of the vast Chinese people.
Some experts recall:
“The World Radio Conference assigns 3G frequency to FDD and TDD. Foreign manufacturers have been working on FDD for several decades. Chinese manufacturers including Huawei and ZTE are just getting started and there is no way to compete. However, foreign companies are concerned that TDD is relatively small. We believe that China has set its own standards in the field of TDD and its hope for success is greater. After such success, slowly deeper into more areas, a little bit to accumulate their own strength.
In fact, at the beginning, the Chinese people tried to increase their right to speak in WCDMA. At that time, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) announced the adoption of a 3G standard with international cooperation. In particular, China welcomes China, Japan, and South Korea to join. China then set up a 3G wireless transmission technology evaluation and coordination group, consisting of telecommunication experts such as Li Jinqing, Li Mofang, Cao Shumin, and Shen Shaoai, to participate in the assessment of European 3G standards. They participated in the 3G Standards Discussion Conference held by the European Standard Organization in Spain and they were inclined to support WCDMA at that time. They also hope to integrate their technology into European WCDMA technology standards. They also invited European standards organizations to come to China to discuss with them the telecom experts of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications and Southeast University.
We thought that by pointing out the flaws of others' WCDMA, we took the opportunity to add our own patents. As a result, several Chinese experts were dismissed when they spoke. The questions they raised were already taken into account by others, and each parameter was well-founded. Even how it came was clearly stated. We have no chance at all. ”
In the end, the Chinese have found a window of opportunity: TD technology.
Europe's WCDMA is based on FDD technology, that is, uplink and downlink frequencies need to be symmetrical. Europe is sparsely populated. This technology can make the base station less deployed and save money.
China can use TDD technology. We all use mobile phones to watch videos and listen to music. This is down the line. TDD technology can distribute the frequency more to the downlink and less to the uplink. In this way, efficiency is even higher!
While China is densely populated, the base stations are already dense.
Datang led by Li Shihe submitted the TD-SCDMA technology proposal. Leaders and scholars such as Zhou Yi, Li Jinliang, and Song Zhiyuan vigorously called for and supported!
In May 2000, with the strong support of the National Ministry of Information Industry, China Mobile and China Unicom, the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) formally announced the submission of China's TD-SCDMA, and the European-led WCDMA, the United States-led CDMA2000 is tied for three major 3G international standards. With regard to the TD-SCDMA announcement, foreign manufacturers reacted coldly, and even equipment vendors said that we have the ability to do TD-SCDMA, but we will not do it.
China Mobile pushes TD-SCDMA
The 3G business model is not mature, and the Ministry of Information Industry is not willing to spend money until January 2009 when it issued a 3G license. The decision by the Ministry of Information Industry was really wise.
If TD-SCDMA does not get a license in the country, or only as an assistive technology. Then this technology is finished.
The result was unexpected to everyone. The most wealthy China Mobile has obtained a TD-SCDMA license. At the same time, China Unicom obtained a WCDMA license and China Telecom obtained a CDMA2000 license.
Only China Mobile is engaged in the Chinese-led international standard TD-SCDMA. The pressure can be imagined.
The entire industry chain is not mature and the technology itself is not mature enough. But this is the first time in history that China has led the development of standards, and the Chinese have defined products to build such a large network.
Huawei and ZTE have relatively high shares in TD. Datang also has some shares. Chinese enterprises have become the mainstream supplier of China Mobile as never before. Chip companies such as Spreadtrum have also grown up.
However, for a long time, mobile has been silently watching its own high-end users, and has continued to flow to Unicom and Telecom.
Mobile sacrificed, but from the perspective of national justice, it is worth it.
Qualcomm collects money from all 3G standards.
INTEL saw it very hot and launched a WIMAX standard that also incorporated the 3G standard.
However, because traditional mainstream operators did not support him, they eventually lacked large-scale applications and failed.
The standard is no matter how good, no application is also nonsense.
4G enters the mainstream
Western companies have thoroughly seen the Chinese’s determination to participate in international standards.
If you don't cooperate with me as a standard, don't blame me for making a share of myself! China has a population of more than one billion, which is about the same as in Europe.
This time, Chinese companies were able to enter the room and discuss standards with others on an equal basis. They were no longer discriminated against.
When the Ministry of Information Industry issued a 4G license, all three operators were TD-LTE licenses at the earliest, demonstrating support for China's TD technology that holds the right to speak.
TD-LTE is widely used in the world, like FDD-LTE, and it is no longer a part of itself.
5G leads the trend
The earliest 5G chips, the earliest 5G mobile phones, and the earliest 5G applications were created by the Chinese. Huawei and ZTE have a lot of exciting news.
On 5G, the Chinese have led the development of the times.
In the original 2G3G4G5G, superimposing a single capability can better realize the realization of all things.
In fact, IOT was also available in the past, but the power consumption on the terminal side was too large to be a mobile phone.
As a result of this standard, the power consumption of the terminal becomes very small. With two batteries, the terminal can be used for one or two years. This is very important for the Internet of Things. For example, remotely copy your house's gas meters, water meters, electricity meters, etc.
This standard, the Chinese people's technology even more than half!
This is one of the core technologies made in China 2025.
Again, no matter how good the standards are, there is no use for nonsense.
Under the guidance of Ms. Cao Shumin, Dean of the Institute of Telecommunications of the Ministry of Information Industry, Yingtan has taken over the world's largest NB-IOT network. China to force!
According to Ding Jianchun of Junlong Law Firm and Piao Ning of the National Intellectual Property Trading Center (former Huawei Senior Engineer of Intellectual Property), they introduced:
Huawei has built a very large standards department, turned the technology developed into a patent, and strived to implant standards.
Huawei has already started to receive the license fee for international patents and has entered the "first-class enterprise" level. Every year Apple charges a lot of money.
South Korea’s Samsung has already lost a patent lawsuit in China, and will either hand over licensing fees to Huawei or ban sales for some models.
China belongs to the world. With the support of the Chinese government, enterprises, operators, and the general public, the Chinese are becoming more and more active in international standards and their status is increasingly important.
Made in China 2025 will be successful.
This article comes from the concept of news (Shanghai Liberation Daily news client), the original title: "One interpretation Lenovo Huawei veteran Ji Maoxin", author: Dai Hui