In recent years, scientists have paid close attention to earth science. This is also a scientific research project deserved to be valued. From the space angle, we can observe the inner planets and their characteristics from the way the ground angle cannot be obtained. The challenges we face on the earth, from nature to human creation, require us to understand how, when, and what effect we have. NASA and geoscience research projects are crucial to the successful human spaceflight and the future climate test.
As far as science is concerned, we have not yet fully understood the complex system of the planet earth. The earth's atmosphere, surface, water, ice, and complex living organisms interact to form a simple connection system. With the change of the earth, both natural and artificial, we have only one expectation to understand the best action plan: the scientific investigation of these systems. Only when we have a scientific understanding of planet earth, and how all these interrelated factors respond to natural and human induced changes, can we successfully predict climate, weather, and other natural threats and hazards.
The main function of NASA's Geoscience Department is to command and coordinate satellites and air missions so as to observe the earth as much as possible. These include: the earth's surface, biosphere, atmosphere, oceans and ice sheets. Satellite images, earth temperature measurements, atmospheric gas concentrations, vegetation views, cloud cover, ice sheets and glaciers and melts are all dependent on NASA's geoscience projects in the weather report. There are some basic scientific problems about earth change, and without the scientific principles of change, no sensible decision can be made.
That's why in the next few years, NASA's Geosciences department must provide sufficient funds for the next 19 scientific projects. The accurate information of the earth's ecosystem in the future is irreplaceable. In this case, the earth's ecosystem enables human beings to reproduce, and these scientific tasks must be ensured according to the plan. If we do not want to have the relevant facts, there is no need to put money into it, but in a sense, This is the 19 scientific scheme to save the earth.
Night, day and seasonal carbon dioxide emissions initiative monitoring plan (ASCENDS)The plan will measure the amount of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere, regardless of season, latitude, day and night, and changes in air pressure and temperature. Its space instruments and equipment can carry out independent flight missions, and can also serve as an integral part of the large earth observatory.
Climatic absolute radiation and refraction Observatory (CLARREO)This long-term space mission will monitor the various radiation features of the earth, including reflecting the sun, so as to better understand and quantify the earth's climate, and to analyze how the earth's climate changes. This will produce the most accurate and reliable climatic record in history.
Thermal radiometer experiment in space station ecosystem (ECOSTERSS)How much water do plants need to grow under favorable conditions? Can they feel the pressure? ECOSTERSS instruments will measure plant temperature, how much water they need, and how they cope with environmental stresses. This is an important information needed for agriculture and food safety.
Global ecosystem dynamic survey plan (GEDI)It is very beneficial to measure the changes in the earth's surface from the space angle, but it is better to know the 3D structure of the earth's surface and the biosphere, which is what the GEDI plan is going to do. The high resolution laser rangefinder system can accurately measure the height, vertical structure, and the height of the crown, and can provide us with important information about carbon and water cycle. The GEDI plan will provide the missing "3D structure" to better obtain forest management, water resources, weather forecasts and other information.
GRACE-FO satelliteThis is a follow-up product of the GRACE satellite, which is planned to be launched in May 19th this year. The satellite plans to track the earth's ice cover, glaciers, lakes and rivers, sea levels and underground storage. If we can track and analyze the earth's water resources, we can better understand and determine the whole water circulation system of the earth. The observational data of this satellite will benefit all mankind on earth.
ICESat-2 satelliteThe full name of ICESat-2 satellite is "ice layer, cloud layer and land elevation observation 2" satellite, which can emit 10 thousand laser pulses per second and release about 20 trillion photons at a time. Each pulse emission has about 12 photons returning to the ICESat-2 satellite, which is very accurate for measuring ice sheets, glaciers, sea ice and so on. The frozen zone is the frozen area on earth and is also the focus of NASA's geoscience research.
Joint polar satellite system (JPSS-2)The JPSS-2 satellite system operates on the earth's polar orbit to obtain global weather and climate phenomena. This is the most direct way to mitigate natural disasters. For example, we can predict hurricane Katrina with super precision. It is reported that in 2005, NASA began to run the first JPSS system satellite, JPSS-1, which has been the best meteorological survey equipment ever since it has been running. The observation coverage of the earth depends on the continuous development and launch of the subsequent JPSS satellites, with an average interval of 5 years to launch a satellite. If we did not launch the JPSS-2 satellite in 2023, it would be very difficult for us to cover the earth.
Landsat-9 satelliteHigh quality, global and terrestrial imaging satellites are one of the most important tools for us to understand the earth's land. Since the early 70s of the last century, the Landsat satellite project has been providing a large number of high altitude photos of the earth. The Landsat-9 satellite is part of the American sustainable land imaging program. It is expected to be launched in 2020 to continue to complete the irreplaceable earth surface survey of the Landsat satellite project. Without Landsat satellites, we would not be able to make sufficient information decisions on the use of the earth's land.
Polar operational environment satellite system (POES) -- MetOp-C satellitePOES satellite system is a joint project of NASA and the European Space Agency, including the upcoming MetOp-B satellite follow up satellite MetOp-C, which has 5 survey instruments to measure reflected solar, radiant heat, earth radiant belt intensity, ocean surface temperature, atmospheric ozone, cloud height and coverage. The scope, as well as the atmosphere of the state of water vapor, and so on. The MetOp-C satellite is the latest follow-up satellite that requires earth observation.
North Atlantic aerosol and marine ecosystem research (NAAMES)What is the process to control the ocean? How does the ocean affect atmospheric aerosols, transient matter, clouds and the whole climate? Ships, aircraft, satellites, and in situ oceanic sensors will solve these problems together. Based on the NAAMES task, we will better master how to manage the ocean and assess and predict the changes in the marine ecosystem.
NISAR taskThis is a cooperative project of NASA and the India space research organization (ISRO), which will examine the surface of the earth's deformation, determine the possibility of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides, while monitoring ground water, isolating carbon dioxide, and determining the contribution of the earth's non human biomass to global carbon emissions.
NASA orbital carbon observation 3 (OCO-3)How do you use precision, resolution and coverage to measure carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and observe the changes in the carbon dioxide index of the time and space within a year? It has 3 high-resolution grating spectrometers, which can collect atmospheric carbon dioxide in space. The equipment will be installed at the International Space Station Japanese module exposure experimental equipment (JEM-EF), which will facilitate the comparison and analysis of the existing land based and high altitude instruments and space instruments. When it comes to carbon dioxide, it is very important to grasp the change of the carbon dioxide index of the earth's environment.
Marine melting mission in Greenland (OMG)The ice cover is melting not only on the upper layer, but also in the lower layer. As the water temperature changes of the continental shelf around Greenland are measured for the first time, the sea melting task in Greenland will better assess the sea level rise by measuring the melting and extending of the ice layer under the sea surface of Greenland. This task will improve the measurement data of the depth and shape of the key areas of the seabed.
Cloud layer aerosol observation and interaction task (ORACLES)ORACLES can be said to be the worst acronym in human history, but the task will measure an important part of human pollution: the impact of burning biomass, especially in the African continent. These aerosols are formed in burning biomass and will converge in the southeast of the Atlantic, and the Atlantic is a "climate radiator". The NASA acknowledges that the global representative aerosol cloud interaction process in the climate model, as highlighted by the latest IPCC Research Report, has the greatest uncertainty in assessing future climate.
Plankton, aerosols, clouds, marine ecosystem satellites (PACE)The overall scientific goal of the satellite is to better understand how the oceans and the atmosphere exchange carbon dioxide, and also to reveal how aerosols promote the growth of phytoplankton in the surface of the ocean. In addition, it will determine the range and duration of algal propagation, and map out various types of marine chlorophyll products. By expanding and extending NASA's long-term observations, it is expected to better understand the key components of the earth's biosphere and climate.
Water surface and marine surveying and mapping satellite (SWOT)SWOT satellite is a joint project in the United States, France, Britain and Canada. The satellite will cover the world's vital information on rivers, lakes, reservoirs and oceans. It will take 11 days to cover the earth's full coverage. It marks the first full observation of earth's fresh water from space. The satellite will be launched in 2021, and the image resolution of the ocean is 10 times the current performance of the best artificial satellite.
Tropospheric emission monitor (TEMPO)The tropospheric emission monitor will be lifted by the geosynchronous communication satellite in 2019, which will measure the pollution of the whole North America at high spatial resolution per hour. This is the first such monitoring instrument to be launched to collect information on ozone, nitrogen dioxide and other pollutants, all of which aim at improving our air quality forecast and achieve the level that has never been achieved.
Time series analysis of precipitation structure and storm intensity (TROPICS)The high latitude region of the earth is the most devastating region of the earth, and the region needs time to analyze the observation, which tells us how much heat and water flow throughout the whole storm's life cycle. There are 3 cubic satellites in the near earth orbit. It will scan the satellite orbit every two seconds, focusing on oxygen, water vapor, precipitation and cloud ice. We want to enhance image resolution, configurable coverage, and achieve reliability at low cost.
NASA's total and spectral solar irradiance sensor (TSIS-1)The sensor is designed to measure the overall irradiance of the sun and the solar radiation illumination spectrum (different wavelengths), and it will be used to replace the outdated TIM instruments on the 2003 SORCE spacecraft. NASA has published a full 40 year full solar irradiance data that is expected to run at the international space station later this year by the TSIS-1 sensor.
The key to adapting to a changing world is not just personal behavior, but also the whole of mankind, which requires us to use the best tools and information processing. This means paying attention to what the earth is doing, whether natural or man-made, using the best data to drive our policy decisions. These 19 future space missions represent the short-term and medium-term roadmap of NASA's geoscience, and each task continues to step in step by step. As long as there is no unexpected reduction in the future, it will be realized in the near future. (Ye Qingcheng)