[Tencent Technology Editor's Note] Space may be the final border, but for humans without excellent spacesuits, space is also an inaccessible and deadly area. For 57 years, both NASA and American companies have been called to protect astronauts who have participated in high-altitude flights. They have risked their lives to explore space. From the silver suits of the 1950s and 1960s to the next generation of commercial and government design, the mainstream American online media BI inventoryed the evolution of space suits over the past 60 years.
1. Mercury Suit (1961-1963)
The Project Mercury marks the first time that American citizens have entered orbit around the Earth. In order to protect the first batch of astronauts from sudden pressure loss, NASA revised the US Navy's high-altitude jet-type pressure service. Each space suit has a nylon coating on its interior and an aluminum-plated nylon on the outside to keep the interior of the space suit as stable as possible. Before the space suit was retired, six astronauts wore them into space.
2. Gemini Suit (1965-1966)
The Gemini Project is the second space project of NASA, but it has more ambitious projects. The Gemini spacecraft carried two astronauts into space. This two-week mission seemed uncomfortable. The Clarke-designed Gemini suit reacts sensitively when pressed and takes extra measures to make them more comfortable than the mercury suit. For example, they can be connected to a portable air conditioner to keep the astronaut cool and even connect to the line of the spacecraft. These suits weigh 7 to 15 kilograms.
3. Gemini Spacewalk Suit (1965-1966)
The Gemini space suit named G4C was designed for NASA’s first spacewalk. Astronauts will open the doors during these adventures and work in a vacuum. In order to withstand the harsh space environment, space suits use a hose to connect astronauts with the spacecraft and provide oxygen. However, if something goes wrong, some variants of this package provide up to 30 minutes of backup life support system. The heaviest weightlifting weighs about 15 kilograms.
4. Apollo Spacewalk Suit (1967-1975)
The Apollo program sent astronauts to the moon, which is not as simple as walking in the park. Astronauts need more than Gemini or Mercury spacesuits. The first person to walk on the moon needs "shield" to resist fine weathering (such as glass-like sharp dust), drastic temperature changes, but also has the flexibility to install gears and collect moon rock, and can continue A few hours away from the spaceship. This space suit consists of a dozen layers of fabrics, thick boots and a robust life support system. They weigh more than 81.5 kilograms on Earth, but the moon's gravitational field is only 1/6 of the Earth's.
5. The first shuttle flight suit (1981)
The mission named STS-1 is the abbreviation of Space Transportation System-1, which is the first orbital flight performed by NASA Space Shuttle. Columbia was the first 100-ton orbiter. It carried two astronauts into space, orbited the Earth 37 times, re-entered the atmosphere, and taxied back to the runway. The astronauts did not take risks outside, so they only wore emergency ejection suits. This is an improved version of the US Air Force's high-altitude pressure suits.
6. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (1983-present)
Astronauts from the space shuttle era will regularly work in space to maintain satellites and build and maintain the International Space Station (ISS). They need spacewalk space suits to perform these tasks, so NASA created extravehicular mobile devices. This 14-layer pressurized clothing can withstand the enormous pressure of space and allow astronauts to survive for more than 8 hours. Under full load, this set of equipment weighs 145 kilograms on Earth. NASA also tested a device similar to a jet pack for an outboard mobile unit called the Manned Maneuvering Unit, which allows astronauts to fly freely. The personnel of the International Space Station today use advanced extravehicular mobile units to maintain the space station.
7. Space Shuttle Flight Suit (1988-2011)
The astronaut’s space suit worn on the shuttle program is sometimes referred to as “pumpkin suit” because of its bright orange color. This suit is equipped with gloves, which can remove the lock ring on the wrist, liquid cooling and improved ventilation, as well as additional insulation.
8. Sokol Launch and Entry Suit (currently in use)
You see today many of the astronauts wear blue lining space suits. In fact, they are called Russian space suits by Sokol or Falcon. This nearly 10 kilogram space shuttle suit is very similar to the space shuttle flight suit, although it was used to protect someone called the Russian Union spacecraft (NASA pays more and more for its astronauts to and from the space station).
9. SpaceX Dragon Flight Suit (2018)
Each NASA astronaut currently spends more than 80 million U.S. dollars to and from the International Space Station, but it hopes to reduce costs by investing in U.S. commercial companies to provide space taxi services. One of them is Elon Musk’s US space exploration technology firm SpaceX, which designed a new space suit to protect astronauts from its Dragon spacecraft to the International Space Station (maybe orbiting the moon). Musk said in February: "We spent three years creating a space suit that looks good. The astronaut may wear it to Mars, but I hope it will be put into use by the end of 2018." ”
10. Boeing CST-100 Star Flight Simulator (Boeing CST-100 Starliner Flight Suit, 2018)
Boeing is the second company that NASA pays for "Space Taxi" service. Its 5.5 kilograms of light blue spacesuits are designed for the CST-100 spaceship and its function is to maintain comfort and mobility under pressure. It consists of a helmet with a thick sealed zipper and does not require a heavy or bulky neck ring. The Boeing Company hopes to send its first astronauts into space in October 2018 and ensure normal use of its entire system by January 2019.
11. Z-2 Planetary Surface Spacesuit (2030)
As NASA continues to advance the boundaries of human space exploration, it hopes to reach Mars in the 1930s. It will need to develop more advanced spacesuits to wear both inside and outside the spacecraft. The Z-2 space suit is a lightweight, highly durable space suit designed by NASA to work on the moon or on Mars. Wearing it, astronauts can explore, collect samples, and operate inside and outside the habitat and the rover, and it is easy to put on and take off. NASA said: "Adjustable shoulder and waist size, these spacesuits can be more suitable for more crew wear. ”
12. Spider Flyer-Walker Spacesuit (date unknown)
Planets are not the only place where astronauts can take risks. The plan supported by Lockheed & Middot; Martin is the man-made satellite that landed on Mars —— Phobos. Its gravity is less than 1/100 of the earth, so "landing" is relative. In order to capture "Phobos", there may be a lot of ice on the top of the rocket fuel, Lockheed & middot; Martin proposed the spider Flyer-Walker plan, which is an eight-foot rocket powered spacesuit. Can crawl, walk or jump on the surface of the planet. NASA has not incorporated this space suit into its plan, but it is a good example of how the space suit will continue to develop in the future to meet the strong demand for space exploration.