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Facebook: how startling step by step involved in this disaster?

via:博客园     time:2018/3/12 10:26:54     readed:1275


According to the magazine published by Tencent magazine, the past two years have been the most turbulent time since the birth of Facebook. It has been involved in an unprecedented and seemingly inevitable disaster, while Mark.


One day in late February 2016, Zuckerberg sent a memo to all Facebook employees about some disturbing behavior. For example, the company had walls at Menlo Park headquarters. Staff are encouraged to write and sign there. As a result, on several occasions, someone has crossed out

In his memorandum, he wrote:

At that time in all parts of the United States, the debate about race and politics became more and more intense. Hilary

So, after Zuckerberg's memo was released, Benjamin, a young outsourcing employee,

A week later, feelnow gave Nunes burst another material. This is an internal communication, Facebook let employees summarized some problems, in order to propose to Zuckerberg in a meeting. But the problem is one of the most popular

Fierno had just graduated from Columbia School of Journalism at the New York office of Facebook

Facebook feels that he is an excellent employer, and the employees like to work here, but it doesn't feel like fir and editors. They are outsourcing employees hired by a company called BCforward. Every day, there are various kinds of things that remind them that they are not really a member of Facebook. And the editorial team was clear that their posts were destined to be cut off from the beginning. Most technology companies tend to reduce as much as possible for employees to participate in human needs, one of the reasons is scalability: you can't hire one billion people to work, and the staff ratio algorithm thing, people need time to rest, but also to buy health insurance, some employees sometimes dislike to the media information. So we all feel that the algorithm will become some day in the future, Facebook is very clever enough to automatically manage the entire project, and feelnow team (one of the effects is to train the algorithm) can be fired.

The next day of Fierno's second screenshot was Friday, which was his day off, but he was notified that he had to attend a videoconference. Facebook's investigative director, Sonya.

On the same day, Hu Jia and

What happened to Villarreal and Fierno

This article gets a lot of forward, but it comes with it.

"Connection" magazine interviewed 51 Facebook for this article's former and current employees, many of whom do not want to be named, after all, David Villa Rael and Fernon was fired is a lesson. To prevent just one case, one of the interviewed employees also turned the reporter on the line off the phone, because he didn't want Facebook to easily track whether the reporter was close to anyone of the company's cell phone.

These people say different, but most people are talking about the same thing: Facebook and CEO see this platform can be used for a myriad of ways being used to do evil, their optimism of technology has collapsed; the U.S. presidential election shook the Facebook, let the company get into trouble; foreign worries hit as the company and how to help themselves.

II neutrality is a choice

The history of Facebook's entrepreneurial history shows the creative power of our information age. It starts from a campus web site, becoming a way for people to connect and log in to other websites. Its Messenger application can be partially replaced by e-mail and SMS. After the earthquake such a disaster, it is a place for people to report safe. In a country like Philippines, it is actually the Internet.

To a large extent, this big explosion comes from a wise and simple insight: human beings are social animals. But the Internet is a dirty pool, people do not dare to highlight their identity, and will not put personal information on the Internet. When it comes to solving the problem, people will be happy to share information after they feel comfortable. The resulting database can be provided to advertisers, and the platform will also become one of the most important media technologies in the early twenty-first Century.

The idea itself is very strong, and the expansion of Facebook means strong. Zuckerberg also play decisive, and even can be said that his judgment is often indifferent, but he is right. A suggestion for the developer is in the early development of the company, to

In fact, Facebook beat such a competitor on its way to becoming the dominant social network. In 2012, The most popular social network for online news releases is not Facebook, but Twitter, a 140-character social network that speeds up the spread of news, so its influence in the news industry is growing much faster than that of Facebook.

So Zuckerberg adopted his usual strategy, if he couldn't buy a competitor, he plagiarized him and beat him. He adjusted Facebook's news feed to fully integrate the news and then adjust the product. Show the title and the author's signature. Then Facebook sends employees to contact the news industry to explain to them how better to attract readers through the platform. As of end of 2013, Facebook's share of news site diversion has doubled. By 2015, Twitter had overtaken Google as the biggest news site to recommend news to readers. It brings 13 times as many readers to news sites as Twitter. That year, it also launched the Instant Articles-based messaging tool, which gives publishers the opportunity to post articles directly on the platform. This allows articles to load faster. It looks clearer, but publishers need to give up some control over content. The publishing industry has been in the doldrums for years, and most publishers have agreed to the terms of Facebook, so Facebook became the de facto owner of the content.

However, Facebook does not seem to have carefully considered what it means to be the leading force in the news industry. Everyone in the management is concerned about the quality and accuracy of the news. They have set rules, for example, to ban pornographic content and to protect copyright. But Facebook has hardly hired journalists, and it doesn't take much time to discuss the major issues that have plagued the media industry. What is fair? What is the truth? How do you embody the difference between news, analysis, irony, and point of view? Facebook has always felt that he was just a technology company, building a platform for a variety of ideas, so it wouldn't be bothered by these disputes.

Facebook is an open and neutral platform, which is almost like a religious creed within the company. When new employees enter the office, they will hear Chris, chief product officer.

Because of this perception of self-image and regulatory concerns, Facebook is trying not to favour any kind of news content. But neutrality is an option in itself. For example, Facebook decided to present everything in the dynamic news in roughly the same way.

In any case, this approach of Facebook provides another way for people to connect to each other. Facebook has become a place where publishers can get in touch with readers. The places where Macedonian teenagers can contact American voters can be contacted by their agents in St Petersburg. No one in Facebook has ever seen such a situation before.

III Performing a "The Crime of Defamation" & "Plays"

In February 2016, Roger McNamee discovered some strange phenomena on the Facebook platform. McNamee was Facebook’s early investor and had advised Zuckerberg on two major decisions: one was to reject Yahoo's $1 billion acquisition proposal in 2006, and the second was to hire Shirley · Sander in 2008. Sheryl Sandberg helps find business models. The connection between Mikenner and Zuckerberg in 2016 was not so close, but he was still an investor. In February, he saw something related to the Bernie & Middot Saunders campaign that worried him. "I saw a Facebook team that seemed to be involved with the Saunders campaign team in the release package, but they were certainly not launched by Saunders's campaign team," he recalled, "but their activities are well organized." Sex, like having budget funds. I think this is not a good sign. ”

But McNamee didn't talk to anyone on Facebook——at least not yet. The company itself did not find any alarming signals. There was only one exception: In early 2016, the company’s security team noticed an increase in the number of Russians attempting to steal account numbers and passwords of journalists and public figures. Facebook reported this to the FBI but said it had never received an answer from the government.

In the spring of 2016, Facebook was actively conducting a defense because it was criticized that it may affect the presidential election in a completely different way. Reports of “hot topics” and “team political biases” were quickly broadcast to millions of readers after Gizmodo was published in May, and they themselves appear in “hot topics”. But it wasn’t this report that shocked Facebook. It was a letter from John Thune, a Republican senator from South Dakota; John & middot; Thun is chairman of the Senate Commerce Committee, and its regulated Federal Trade Commission is particularly concerned with investigating Facebook. The senator asked Facebook to reply to these prejudices as soon as possible.

Thun’s letter put Facebook in a state of vigilance. The company quickly dispatched senior staff in Washington to meet with Thun's team. He then sent him a long 12-page letter explaining that the company had conducted a comprehensive review of "hot topics" and determined that the statements in the Gizmodo report were largely untrue.

At the same time, Facebook also decided to extend an olive branch to the entire American right wing, because at that time most of the right-wing people believed that the company's treacherous behavior was an outrage. So, a week after the release of this report, Facebook invited 17 well-known Republicans to the company’s headquarters, including television presenters, radio stars, think tanks, and Trump’s campaign consultants. One of the reasons for this is to listen to feedback. But more importantly, the company hopes to demonstrate a "criticism" in this way and show it to the right-wingers.

A Facebook employee who was involved in planning the meeting said that they actually wanted to make this group of conservatives quarrel with themselves, because some of the invited people are free will, do not want to supervise the platform, and some are partyists. , Want to monitor the platform. The employee said that the other intention of the meeting was after Zuckerberg and Sandberg spoke to this group of people, and they made them feel "bored to death" through technical introductions.

It was not surprising that the guests quarreled with each other and they could not agree. Some people hope that the company will set a quota for the conservative employees. Others think this idea is too crazy. But just as outsiders often do when they come to Facebook, these guests also want to figure out how to attract more followers for their own accounts.

Afterwards, one of the invitees, Glenn Beck, wrote an article for the meeting to praise Zuckerberg. "I asked him whether Facebook is an open platform for sharing all ideas, or a content editing site, now or in the future." "Baker wrote. "He did not hesitate to say that there is only one Facebook, and it has only one way forward: we are an open platform." ”

Inside Facebook, the "hot topic" has really inspired some people's thinking. But this thinking did not go too far. At that time, there was an internal project code-named Hudson, wondering if it was necessary to make some adjustments to dynamic news in order to better cope with some of the most complex issues it faced. Does dynamic news tend to show offensive posts? Does it tend to show simple or even wrong views rather than complex but correct views? These are difficult questions to answer. The company has not yet found the answer. Eventually, in late June, Facebook announced a small change: the algorithm will be modified to show posts from friends and family. At the same time, Adam Mosseri, the head of Facebook’s dynamic news, published an article titled “Create Better News for You”. For corporate insiders, this is equivalent to the "Magna Carta" of the dynamic news, because the company has never truly talked about how dynamic news works. However, for outsiders, this article is all-encompassing, because you guess also guess what Facebook will say: they are opposed to cheating the click on the title party, but they are not "eccentric" and some types of opinions.

According to a dozen or so former and current employees, the most significant consequence of the “hot topics” is that Facebook has been cautious about anything that appears to be suppressing conservative news. It has already had a lesson and does not want to come again. So, despite the fact that campaign campaigns in the summer of that year were full of malicious attacks and embarrassment, Facebook was anxious to stay away from the fight.

IV Murdoch’s Threat

Shortly after Mosley’s article was published, Zuckerberg went to Idaho’s Sun Valley to attend the annual conference hosted by billionaire Herbe · Herb Allen, where he wore a short-sleeved shirt and sunglasses. The giants plan to buy each other's companies. However, Rupert · Murdoch expressed dissatisfaction with Facebook in a meeting. Murdoch and News Corp. CEO Robert · Thomson told Zuckerberg that they have long been unhappy with Facebook and Google. Because these two technology giants almost occupied the entire digital advertising market, it seriously threatened the survival of the news industry. According to informed sources, they accused Facebook of making major changes to its core algorithm without fully consulting its media partners, saying that Zuckerberg's whim has produced a lot of trouble. If Facebook does not give the publishing industry more favorable conditions for cooperation, News Corp’s executives will publicly condemn Facebook and lobby. In Europe, they let Google's life go very unfair, in the United States, they can give Facebook a little color look.

Facebook believes that News Corp. is threatening to promote antitrust investigations by the government, or pushing the government to investigate whether Facebook should be protected as a neutral platform. Inside Facebook, executives believe that Murdoch may use his newspapers and television stations to spread comments that are not good for the company. However, News Corp said that this is not the case. The company’s threat is to allow senior executives to take action instead of allowing news operators to take action.

According to a former Facebook executive, Zuckerberg has reason to take this meeting seriously because he knows exactly what Murdoch will do. Back in 2007, Facebook was criticized by 49 state Attorney Generals, saying that the platform failed to protect young users from inappropriate content. Some parents sent a letter to Connecticut's Attorney General Richard & Middot; Blumenthal and The New York Times, the former carried out a survey, which published a report. But according to a Facebook-based knowledgeable former executive, the company believes that many of the Facebook accounts mentioned in these letters, as well as misconduct, are fabricated and can be traced back to News Corp. lawyers or others hired by Murdoch. Murdoch is the boss of Facebook's biggest competitor MySpace. “We found that some fake Facebook accounts were created at the Apple Store a block away from the MySpace office in Santa Monica. "The supervisor said that Facebook later discovered that these accounts had interactions with News Corporation's attorneys." For Facebook, Murdoch has been doing everything he can to take a variety of ways to suppress. " (News Corp declined to comment.)

Zuckerberg returned from Sun Valley and told the staff to make some changes. They are still not doing news business, but they must ensure that there is a news business. They must communicate better. Andrew Anker, a product manager, was one of the participants in this event. He entered the journalism industry in 2015 (including a long-term tenure in Wired magazine in the 90s) before joining Facebook. One of his work is to help design how to make publishers make money on the platform. Shortly after the Sun Valley incident, Anker saw Zuckerberg in a meeting and applied to hire 60 newcomers to cooperate with journalism. The application was approved on the spot.

However, after extensive discussions with publishers, Facebook understands that it is extremely difficult to solve Murdoch’s financial problems. The news media has spent millions of dollars making content, but it has benefited Facebook. Publishers believe that Facebook offers too little return. "Immediate Wenhui" is seen as a trap. Publishers have complained that the money they make on content posted on their mobile web pages will be more than that on Facebook’s instant text “” publishers will often place ads on readers who are unlikely to see The place is equivalent to licking advertisers' oil, and Facebook can't let them do that.) There is also an irreconcilable issue: Murdoch’s “Wall Street Journal” and other publications can make money through the paywall. However, "Instant Wenhui" clause banned the paywall. Because Zuckerberg doesn't like the paywall, it feels it hinders the openness and connectivity of the world.

So, Facebook and publishers usually end up in a stalemate, but Facebook has at least become more alert. However, the attitude of worries of journalists has not extended to Facebook's own "hot topics" editorial team. In late August, the team received a notice to be hacked and the algorithm's permissions were handed over to a team of engineers in Seattle. Soon, rumors and false news began to appear on hot topics.

V The most effective political digital marketing campaign in history

Facebook wants to become a company that dominates the media, but it is not the media itself. As the company tangles itself with this issue, Trump’s campaign team knows exactly how they can use Facebook’s platform. They used Twitter to smash the media, communicate directly with their supporters, and used Facebook to conduct the most effective political digital marketing campaign in history.

In the summer of 2016, when the presidential election campaign was intensifying, Trump’s digital marketing team seemed to be at a disadvantage. After all, Hillary · Clinton's team has a group of elite talent, and Google's original CEO Eric · Schmidt is also planning for her. Trump's side, "talent" is Brad Parscale. His previous major achievement was the production of the Eric Trump Foundation's website. But the 2016 election proved that you don't need much digital marketing experience to get the upper hand in the presidential election. You just need to know how to use Facebook skillfully.

In the summer of that year, Trump's team turned Facebook into a major fundraising tool. The campaign team uploaded Facebook campaign files ——names, addresses, voting history, and other information to be sent to potential voters. Then they used a tool called Lookalike Audiences to determine the characteristics of a crowd such as those who had purchased Trump campaign slogans, who had subscribed to Trump Communications groups, and the like. Then they start advertising for people with similar characteristics. Trump's team released the information is very simple, such as "The election is manipulated by the media, the use of false and unproven accusations, as well as a complete lie, is to make the swindler Hillary elected! ” This information has received hundreds of thousands of likes, comments and reposts. Donations are also rolling. At the same time, Hillary’s more ambitious news has received less response on the platform. Within Facebook, almost everyone in management wants Hillary to be elected, but they are very clear that Trump's team is better at using this platform.

A new type of deception has also emerged. The crooks tried repeatedly to find out that praising Trump's expression pack was more likely to attract popularity than praising Hillary. Various false news emerged. For example, Hillary quietly sold weapons to terrorist organizations. He also said that an FBI agent who had allegedly leaked Hilary's e-mail had died in strange ways. Some of these posts were made by Americans with deep party opinions, but some came from overseas. They fabricated such false news purely to earn advertising fees. At the end of the campaign, Facebook’s most popular real news engagement is not as good as the most popular fake news.

Facebook also admitted that at the time they ignored obvious signs of abuse of the platform. But when you think about it, it's easy to see why they were so negligent. "The hot topic" incident led management to be overly cautious and felt that taking action on false news involving parties may be viewed as a political bias. Facebook is selling ads, and sensational spam will attract huge page views. How much money an employee gets is mainly related to whether Facebook has achieved a certain growth rate and income, so employees will feel that things that can promote participation should not be overly worried about it. Then there was the issue of Section 230 of the 1996 Communications Integrity Act. Once Facebook has taken responsibility for fighting fake news, it may need to take more responsibility. Facebook has plenty of reason to pretend not to see these fake news.

However, Roger · McNamee carefully observed this false news. He first saw some false news in support of Bernie & Middot; Saunders, then false news in support of Brexit, and then false news in support of Trump. On a Sunday evening nine days before the 2016 election, McNamee sent a 1,000-word letter to Sandberg and Zuckerberg. “I’m sorry for Facebook’s situation. I’ve been with the company more than a decade ago and I’m very proud and happy about the company’s success. But things in the past few months have disappointed me. ”

VI This is Facebook's problem, or is it human nature?

The platform you used to bring everyone together is being used to split people. It is not easy to admit that Zuckerberg’s first reaction to Trump’s election and Facebook’s possible role in it was to reject . After the results of the election came out, the executives panicked and wondered if they would be blamed. At a meeting two days after the election, Zuckerberg thought that "filter bubbles" in real life are worse than on Facebook, and that social media will hardly affect the way people vote. He said: "The proportion of false news on Facebook has not been high, thinking that they will affect the election too crazy. ”

Zuckerberg refused to be interviewed for this article, but people who knew him said that he likes to use data to support his opinions. His staff conducted a back-office calculation and showed that false news really only accounted for a small part of the total content of the election-related content on the platform. However, the low proportion does not mean that the influence is small.

Zuckerberg's argument is very weak, and even people inside Facebook are not very convinced. A former executive told Wired magazine that "We must really make him understand this." We feel that if we do not do this, the company will embark on Uber's path of being spurned. ”

A few days later Zuckerberg flew to Peru to address world leaders, saying that connecting more people to the Internet and Facebook can help reduce global poverty. After reaching Lima, he published an article with a nature of self-criticism, but stated that Facebook was indeed serious about misinformation, and also proposed a general response plan. Informed sources said that Zuckerberg also met with Obama in Lima. The purpose is to express to outgoing Obama that Facebook attaches great importance to this issue. He really wants to solve this problem, but it is not so easy.

At the same time, Facebook is also internally buoyant. For the first time, they began to wonder if Facebook has too much power.

Shortly after the end of the election, Facebook's "News and Integrity Working Group" was established. One of the members told the "wiring" that the wrong information about the parties was "a disease that spreads across the entire platform." Mosley and Anker are also members of this working group. The working group meets daily and draws different ways on the whiteboard to deal with the false news crisis. A few weeks later, the company announced that it would cut advertising revenue from spam, providing users with an easier way to tag posts that they believe are false news.

In December, the company announced that it will introduce the fact check function on the platform for the first time. Facebook does not want to carry out the fact verification work itself, but outsource it to professionals. If Facebook receives enough information to indicate that a message is false, it will automatically send this message to partners such as Snopes for verification. In early January of this year, Facebook announced that it had hired former CNN anchor Campbell & Middot; Campbell Brown. She became the most famous journalist hired by the company.

Soon after Brown began working on a project called "Facebook News Projects", it was shown to everyone that Facebook is considering its role in the future journalism industry.—The work of this project actually suffered Murdoch’s After the attack, it began, but now it is more open and organized. But anxiety is also a motivation. After the election, as Trump won the victory, the media gathered a lot of attention on fake news and began to criticize us. People began to feel panicked and worried that regulation is coming. So the team started doing things like the Google News Lab (a team of reporters building tools), figuring out how to build our own tools and showing how serious we are about the future of journalism. ”

However, Facebook is reluctant to post any action plan regarding the "filter bubble" issue. The leadership believes that these problems cannot be solved or even solved. Is Facebook's mistake in the election really bigger than Fox News or MSNBC? Of course, you can put content that is contrary to people’s political opinions in their dynamic news, but people do not look at them just like they change TV channels. As Ank said, "This is not a problem for Facebook. Humanity has always been the same. ”

VII “Formation of Anti-Facebook Trio ”

Zuckerberg's first reaction was too crazy and attracted a lot of people's attention, but one of the most influential was a security researcher named Renee · Ren & eacute;e DiResta. . Over the years, she has been studying the way that wrong information spreads on Facebook. She noticed that if you join an anti-vaccine organization on Facebook, then the platform may suggest that you join the "Earth Plane Theory" group so that you can go further in the anti-science path. Zuckerberg's statement made her feel very unhappy.

At the same time, Miken’s letter did not play any role. Although Zuckerberg and Sandberg immediately wrote back to him, he did not say anything substantive. As a result, he eventually spent months of e-mail communications with Facebook's vice president of partnership, Dan · Rose (Dan Rose). McNamee said that Ross's letter is always very polite, but his attitude is also very firm: the company did a lot of good things, but McNamee did not see, in any case, Facebook is a platform, not a media company.

And McNamee believes that "no matter what you say, as long as your users do not look very much, your statement is not important." ”

We have all heard about love and hate. McNamee was only initially worried, but later he took this as his mission. In April 2017, McNamee performed on Bloomberg TV with Tristan Harris, a former design ethicist at Google. Harris had already obtained the "Silicon Valley Conscience" reputation in the United States and appeared on some famous TV shows and media to introduce the subtle skills that social media companies used to make users addicted. "They can amplify human nature." The worst part. After doing the show together, McNamee called Harris and asked: "Brother, do you need a partner?" ”

In the following month, Di Resta published an article comparing false news communicators on social media to high-frequency traders who are good at manipulation in financial markets. She wrote: "With social networks, malicious people can operate at the platform level, because social networks are designed for rapid information flow and viral spread. Robots and zombies can create illusions of large-scale public events at a low cost, just as the earlier banned early trading algorithms may create illusions of stock buying. "Harris appreciates this article and sends her an e-mail.

Three individuals soon began to publicize "Facebook's poisonous effect on American democracy." Soon after, they found audiences in the media and parliamentary groups who also complained about Facebook.

VIII doesn't like it, but it can't go without it

Even when the relationship between Facebook and the media is best, the meeting between the executives of both parties is not very harmonious. The two sides can not leave each other, but they do not like each other. Media management is very dissatisfied with about three quarters of Facebook and Google’s digital advertising business, and the remaining quarter of the media industry has to compete with other platforms (such as Twitter). In addition, they feel that Facebook's algorithmic propensity causes the industry to publish increasingly boring content. Over the years, The New York Times has been hated by Facebook for helping BuzzFeed to reach the top, but now, BuzzFeed is angry because the title party has snatched readers.

Facebook also inspired deep fear and distrust. All publishers know that Facebook is a large-scale industrial farm and they are at best farmers on this farm. Facebook’s market capitalization is about 200 times higher than the New York Times. The journalist knows in his heart that anyone who owns a farm will have chips. As long as Facebook is willing, it can quietly tilt the balance by manipulating its traffic, ad networks, or readers, leaving publishers to suffer losses.

And Facebook’s employees think it’s really annoying to listen to people who don’t even know the API and algorithms. Employees know that Facebook’s dominance of the digital advertising market is not a matter of luck: it builds a better advertising product. They also experienced difficult times and had doubts about the significance of building this product. Of all the things people see on Facebook, news only makes up 5%. Even if the company abandons this piece, shareholders may not yell. And there is another deeper problem here: Those who know Zuckerberg say he tends to focus on the future. He is not very interested in the immediate problems of the journalism industry. He is interested in issues that are five or 20 years old. On the other hand, the editors of mainstream media companies are concerned about the next quarter’s earnings. They can't even care about what they are looking for. How can they think so far?

This dissatisfaction with each other became almost hatred after the election. Campbell · Brown's work in the "Facebook News Project" is not easy. The first thing she needs to do is to communicate again with editors and publishers. One editor described such a typical meeting: One day in late January 2017, media executives met with Brown and Facebook Chief Product Officer Chris & Middot; Cox invited to meet at Brown's apartment in Manhattan. Cox is a quiet, gentle man. "We told him how Facebook destroyed the news. He kindly listened to these opinions and did not do much to try to defend Facebook." I think the significance of this matter is that he was there and he was listening. The other meeting atmosphere was even more tense, and journalists occasionally said that they were very interested in digital antitrust issues. ”

Despite this, when Zuckerberg released the 5,700-word corporate statement in February, Brown's team was more convinced that their efforts were valued by the company. According to people familiar with the matter, in the three months prior to that, Zuckerberg had been thinking whether some of the things he built were more harm than good. He asked at the beginning of the declaration, "We are building the world we all want. ” Meaning: Obviously not. He revolved around the "construction of a global community" to discuss long-term issues, emphasizing that it is necessary to let everyone know about the situation, and leave fake news and fraudulently clicking on the title of the party. Facebook insiders believe that this declaration shows Zuckerberg's understanding of the company's significant civic responsibility. Others think that this is a routine, indicating that Zuckerberg tends to think that almost any solution to the problem is "Let people use Facebook more."

Shortly after this announcement, Zuckerberg began a well-arranged national parade. He went to the Republican predominant Ohio, where he entered the candy shops and restaurants, followed by a photography team and a blogger team. He wrote a serious article about what he was learning. Some people think that his real purpose is to be the president of the political power, and he avoids answering such questions. He seems to be making good-faith efforts to win friends for Facebook. But it quickly became clear that Facebook’s biggest trouble came from being away from Ohio.

IX finds that the Russian offensive is too late

When Zuckerberg wrote that declaration, he did not seem to understand one thing. His platform was in a more complicated way to “enable” an enemy. However, as 2017 passed by, Facebook began to realize that it had been attacked by foreign forces. "There is a clear distinction between fake news and Russian attacks," said a Facebook executive who is responsible for handling both. “For the latter, everyone will at some point & ldquo; & rdquo; God, this is like a national security incident. ’”

However, "sometimes" did not come until more than six months after the end of the election. In fact, earlier in the campaign, Facebook knew that some Russian "acquaintances" were attacking. For example, there was a hacking organization APT28, which was supposed to belong to Moscow. They stole account files from other sites, and then Create a fake Facebook account in the name of DCLeaks to get everyone to discuss what they have stolen. The signs of organized foreign campaigns Facebook did not see, but it did not seriously look for clues.

In the spring of 2017, the Facebook security team began producing a report on how Russia and other foreign intelligence agencies use the platform. One of the authors is Alex Stamos, Facebook's security team leader. Stamos is an iconic figure in the science and technology community. He once resigned from Yahoo's job because of the controversy over whether to grant US intelligence agencies access to Yahoo!'s servers. Security sources said that he was anxious to publish a detailed and specific analysis report, let everyone see what they found out, but members of the policy and communication team delayed its release and made a substantial report Abridged, because Facebook did not want to fall into a political vortex at the time. (But policy and communication team sources said that they modified the report only because the original report was very readable.)

On April 27, 2017, the Senate announced the summons of the FBI Director James & Middot; the next day after Kirmy testified in the Russian investigation case, Stamos's report was released, titled "Information Warfare and Facebook." It explains how foreign opponents use Facebook to manipulate the public. However, no specific examples or details were given and there was no direct mention of Russia. The report was tedious to read and it was too wordy. Di Resta said: "I see this report, I thought ‘ Oh, my God, they spent six months to do something like this? ’”

A month later, an article in Time stated that there may be something missing from the analysis of the Stamos team. The article quoted an unnamed senior intelligence official as saying that Russian agents had long bought advertisements on Facebook and launched an advocacy campaign against Americans. At about the same time, the Facebook security team heard some buzz from Congressional investigators and felt that the intelligence agencies were actually investigating the Russians' advertising on Facebook. This made team members feel a bit off guard, so they began to self-check Facebook's advertising data files.

In the end, by sorting the transactions with a series of data points (buys bought in rubles? purchased in a browser whose language is set to Russian, etc.), they found out some accounts, which are called Internet research institutes. (Russian Organization for Internet Research Agency) funding. The secretive organization of this operation aims to manipulate the political views of the United States. For example, it has a website called "The Heart of Texas" to promote independence in Texas. There is also the Blacktivist team, which publishes information about police use of violence against blacks, and has more fans than verified "" expensive " accounts.

Many security researchers feel surprised because it took so long for Facebook to discover how this Russian organization used the platform. After all Blacktivist is quite well known on Facebook. The company’s executives said that they were embarrassed to find such fake accounts for such a long time, but they pointed out that they had never been helped by US intelligence agencies. A member of the Senate Intelligence Committee also expressed dissatisfaction with the company. He said that "Russians will adopt such a strategy. This should be obvious. ”

Facebook finally discovered Russian propaganda on its platform, and this discovery triggered a crisis, an argument, and a chaos. First, due to a calculation error, Facebook initially stated that the Russian Group spent millions of dollars in advertising expenses, while the actual amount was only 6 digits. After correcting this error, they also made a disagreement on some issues: to whom they were issued and how many were released. They can publish advertisement data to the public, publish all cases to Congress, or publish nothing. Many of the debates have centered on user privacy issues. Security team members are concerned that the legal process involved in the transfer of private user data (even if they belong to the Russian publicity organization) will open the door to the government to obtain data from other Facebook users in the future. "The company's internal debate on this matter is fierce," an executive said. “Are we supposed to do this? However, in the end, the company believes it should be released.

Finally, at the beginning of September, they published a blog post in the name of Stamos. According to the company’s knowledge, the Russians spent US$100,000 during the 2016 election and bought about 3,000 Facebook ads. To influence the politics of the United States. Every word in this article seems to have played down the seriousness of the problem: the amount of advertising is very small, the cost is low, and Facebook will not deliver these ads. The public will not know what these ads look like or do not know. What is their real purpose?

This makes Di Resta not see it. She just thought that Facebook was just not honest enough, and now it is totally shameless. A few weeks later, she received a call from Jonathan Albright, a researcher at the Center for Digital News Leadership, Jonathan Albright. Albright has been studying the wrong information ecosystem since the election and now he has some good news. He has conducted a survey of CrowdTangle, one of the analytic platforms used by Facebook, and found that the data in the six groups blocked by Facebook still existed and was frozen in a "fake death" state. Some of the group's posts were to promote Texas independence and ethnic disgust. There are also political posts, such as calling Hillary an "anti-American traitor". Blacktivist appeals to fans to resist Hillary and vote for Gill · Stein (Green Party candidate). Albright downloaded the latest 500 posts from these six groups. They were found to have been forwarded more than 3.4 billion times.

X Vestee

According to McNamee, the way Russians use this platform is neither unexpected nor abnormal. "They find that 100 or 1000 people are angry and afraid, and then use Facebook's tools to advertise and let people join the group," he said. “Facebook is used this way. ”

In July, Mike and Harris went to Washington for the first time to meet with congressmen. In September, Diri Star joined them. As long as they are free, they will explain the situation to the members and staff members. The house and Senate Intelligence Committee intends to hold on Russia's use of social media interference in an American election thing, Harris and Mike hearing, nano Diruisita to help them prepare. One of the first questions they think about is who should be summoned to the hearing. Harris suggested summon the chief executive of large technology companies to create a dramatic scene to stand in a row of right - handed sworn oath. But eventually, they decided to summon the general legal advisers of the three companies, Facebook, Twitter and Google.

In November 1st, general counsel for Facebook, Colin

After the hearing, another dam appeared to have broken down, and former Facebook executives began publicly criticizing the company. In November 8th, Shawn, a former Facebook executive, began to criticize the company.

XI Zuckerberg's attitude is changing

On the day of the hearing, Zuckerberg held the Facebook third quarter earnings call. As usual, the numbers were very good, but his mood was not so good. For example, everything is going well, even if it is not. But Zuckerberg's words this time are unusual.

There are other signs that Zuckerberg is starting to embrace criticism. For example,

XII's Critique

A few weeks before Thanksgiving on 2017, Zuckerberg said at a plenary meeting on Facebook that he hoped everyone would have a good holiday. Then he said:

It was winter, critics still accused Facebook: as one falls, another rises to spread on Burma and Philippines information.12 month, check what served as vice president of the Facebook user growth

Facebook said in a statement that Pagliapitia left the company on 2011, and that Facebook is not the same as it used to be.

Meanwhile, Roger,

But Zuckerberg does seem to be eager to fix some of the problems. At about this time, the Facebook executive team gathered at an upscale restaurant in Manhattan to have dinner with news group executives. Zuckerberg gave Murdoch a toast at the beginning. He talked about how he read the biography of Murdoch and how much he enjoyed his achievements. And then talk about playing tennis with Murdoch. At first he thought it was easy to play with a man more than 40 years older than he was, but he soon realized that Murdoch was fighting for a place.

XIII fromliability detracts from the network effect?

In January 4th 2018, Zuckerberg announced his personal challenge to meet this year. For the past nine years, he has pledged to complete some challenges every year. Previous challenges include learning Chinese. Run 365 miles. This year's challenge is serious.

The New year's challenge turned out to be a deliberate one, after which Facebook issued a series of bulletins to reactivate the algorithm for dynamic news

For many in the company, the announcement marks a huge change. From the very beginning of Facebook, Zuckerberg's ambition was to create another Internet or another world within Facebook. And get people to use it as much as possible. This business model is based on advertising, and advertising undoubtedly requires sticking to the user, and taking the time to watch. Facebook has been moving in this direction at full speed for 14 years. But now it's turning backwards. Zuckerberg said he expects the changes made by dynamic News will allow people to spend less time on Facebook.

His statement has come under fire from many in the media. Mosley explains that Facebook will reduce content provided by businesses, celebrities and publishers, giving priority to content shared by friends and family. Critics speculate, These changes are nothing more than a middle finger on the publishing industry.

But inside Facebook, executives insist that's not the case. In December last year, Anke retired from the company, but he took part in the changes and had a big impact on the management team.

Zuckerberg then announced another change, which appeared to be in response to concerns. He said Facebook would support some of the offerings

Zuckerberg hinted (company insiders have confirmed that more such announcements will be made this year) that the company is trying to give publishers more control over the paywall. And allow them to display their logos more prominently. But Facebook's old rival, Rupert Murdoch, made a hostile comment on late January, saying if Facebook really valued it

But what Facebook really cares about is its own destiny. Its cornerstone is the network effect: you join the network because everyone else is. But, Network effects can also drive users out of the platform. Zuckerberg knows that. After all, he caused MySpace this kind of trouble a decade ago. The same is being done with Snap today. Zuckerberg himself has avoided such problems, in part because he is good at taking the biggest threat from Facebook

But people familiar with Zuckerberg say he has really changed a lot in the whirlpool of the past few months.

These things over the past year have also changed Facebook's basic understanding of whether it is a publisher or a platform. In the past, due to regulatory, financial and even emotional reasons, the company often used defensive posture to answer this question, insisting itself as platform, platform and platform. But now, Facebook has been different. Of course, it is still a platform, and it is always. But it now realizes that he has to take on some of the publishers' Responsibilities: to take care of the readers and to care for the truth. You can't make the world more open and connected if you put the responsibility so clear. So is Facebook a publisher or a platform? Facebook seems to realize that it is both. (compiled /Kathy)

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