Bill and Melinda Gates with the news October 2017 trip to Atlanta
Bill Gates: well before the foundation was involved, China had a very good track record in poverty alleviation. We recently joined in, hoping to help China achieve its ambitious goal of eradicating extreme poverty. We believe. The foundation's understanding of health issues, And some of the expertise in digital finance can help China do better in poverty alleviation. [for more details, please refer to the Foundation's China presentation (slides 8, 17 and 18).] as far as I know, China's goal is not only to eradicate extreme poverty, but also to achieve equality in a broader sense, so we need to consider all issues such as health, living conditions, food and so on. And develop appropriate models. China's success model will also provide useful lessons for other countries and governments. China has made a firm commitment to achieving equality, which has become the cornerstone of all government work, There are great opportunities for development here.
Artificial intelligence can increase productivity, and we've experienced the benefits of huge productivity gains before, and we can adjust accordingly. For example, agricultural productivity has been greatly improved. But we've created more, or even better, jobs in other areas, so we don't think everyone is going to be farming as we did a few hundred years ago. Artificial intelligence is enough to reduce human input in product production and service delivery. This frees up the labor force to help vulnerable groups such as the elderly or the disabled and narrow the social gap. If we develop well enough, we can even shorten the number of working days a week, or let people retire early.
So when productivity goes up, if the government can do it in a sensible way to ensure that everyone benefits equally, creating new opportunities in the process, That's a good thing. After all, falling productivity limits our options. We can use artificial intelligence. Of course, some governments may choose not to. Some religious groups may choose not to use any modern technology, but overall, I think it is clear that artificial intelligence can bring very positive benefits in the coming decades.
Xinhua News Agency: good morning, Mr. Gates! China has made great strides in child health over the past decade, but the situation for children in African countries is much more severe. Why does the Gates Foundation have a child health program in China?
Bill Gates: in fact, the focus of our domestic efforts in China is on the prevention and control of specific diseases, and the recent new program, which we hope will help China eradicate extreme poverty. Some of our big programs include AIDS prevention and control. To help more people reduce HIV infection and ensure that AIDS patients have access to treatment drugs; tuberculosis is another important area where the TB burden in China is still heavy, but we have also seen much progress. Another area is tobacco-related diseases, where we work with governments to promote policy to reduce lung cancer and other cancer deaths from primary or secondhand smoke.
You're absolutely right. China has come a long way in many areas related to children's health. We want to see that China's innovative experience not only continues to support our projects in China, At the same time, we can also help other countries to improve and benefit the world through intergovernmental cooperation. So we focus on two things in China, one is to help China solve its domestic problems, and the other is to work with China to help other countries.
China Daily: Hello, Mr. Gates. The Gates Foundation is committed to empowering farmers through agricultural innovation. This is one of the Foundation's efforts to combat climate change. Can you explain why the Gates Foundation has made agricultural innovation a priority for investment, and why not choose other areas, including clean energy, which you are actively promoting?
Bill Gates: take the work of nuclear energy or Tyra Energy, for example, which is more appropriate in the private sector, because companies have enough incentives, there is a lot of capital coming into this field, and market mechanisms are effective. And the energy market itself is very broad. By contrast, helping to increase agricultural production, especially in the poorest regions, cannot be achieved by the market alone, and the market response mechanism is not fast enough. It makes sense for the Gates Foundation to help and train farmers about what crops are more appropriate, especially to improve the quality of seeds-- for example, to improve drought resistance, to promote a green revolution. Helping farmers cope with climate change in the future. Most of the world's poor are farmers, and agricultural productivity determines whether they can eat enough and their children can afford to go to school. If we can help them improve the quality of seeds, improve the soil, get loans, develop farming, vaccinate livestock, and make their livestock healthier. Even by modifying the genes of some livestock, the milk production and egg production of dairy cows will be greatly increased. Therefore, our work will bring about a great improvement in the lives of these poor people, including a substantial increase in nutrition. So outside of health, Promoting agricultural development is our second biggest priority. Take our work in China's agricultural sector as an example, we know that China has its own expertise in rice and livestock vaccines, and has achieved very good results. Therefore, we focus on this aspect of investment, and China to carry out more cooperation.
Central people's Radio: what role do you think technological innovation can play in improving global health on a question of innovation? What innovations do you pay most attention to right now?
Bill Gates: if we look at our macro goals in global health, we have a couple of big areas, like reducing preterm births, and we need to look at why it's more common in poor countries. How can I help solve this problem? We've found that part of the problem is vitamin deficiency and selenium deficiency, so we've been experimenting to see if we can improve the problem and get results. Another problem is malnutrition. Even if you eat the same meal, some children are slow to grow, slow to grow, and their brains are not fully developed. We have found that bacteria in children's intestines play an important role, so we have scientists around the world. Innovative companies have been funding research on children's intestinal flora since about seven years ago. Now we have found that these studies not only help solve malnutrition, But it also helps to solve many other diseases. This field is now gathering the strength of large and small enterprises and academic institutions, and we have already produced some preliminary results in the hope of improving the nutritional level of children.
The impact of innovation is so great that I can't cover everything. But in the end, I want to talk about the death of children under the age of five, and almost half of all deaths in children under the age of five occur within 30 days of their birth. We know more about the cause of death in children over a month, mostly malaria, pneumonia. Diarrhea and other diseases caused. But how to reduce the neonatal mortality rate within 30 days of birth, is the pregnant women vaccinated, let them ingest antibiotics or keep the newborn warm? We have done a lot of research in this area, including sampling of newborns diagnosed within 30 days of birth. In addition, we have used the latest tools to study these problems from the perspective of pathology and genetics, and have established our owndata base-Child Health and Mortality Surveillance Network (CHAMPSfor short), which collects data on the causes of illness and death among children. [for more information, see Section III of Gates' 2017 letter: reducing neonatal mortality...] it not only guides our work, It can also help everyone else to reduce neonatal mortality. Of course, a lot of innovative research is under way, such as vaccine development for diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV. These advances in scientific research can give us new tools to accelerate our progress towards United Nations sustainable development goal 3 (good health and well-being).
China news agency: president Trump is increasingly emphasizing the priority of the United States, while the Chinese government is emphasizing more on the concept of "human destiny community." what do you think are the differences between the two? In your search for extensive cooperation with partners in China and other countries, such as Africa, do you agree that the Chinese government and officials have put all their charitable work under the initiative of Belt and Road?
Bill Gates: we have a very flexible and open attitude about what kind of mechanism China uses to cooperate with other countries. China pays great attention to listening to the needs and development priorities of other countries. China in infrastructure construction. We hope that China can participate in helping Southeast Asia and some African countries to eradicate malaria. If this happens to be in line with the overall thinking of "Belt and Road," And China's decision to do so is, I think, a good way.
Fundamentally, much of the foundation's work, including helping poor farmers increase food production or saving children's lives, is a globally recognized development priority in which China can play a big role.
Phoenix New Media: Hello, Mr. Gates. As far as I understand, the Foundation's budget in China is much smaller than in India or Africa. You have always stressed the importance of China on the international stage. Why doesn't the Foundation invest more money in China? In addition, what new plans do you have in the next few years?
Bill Gates: the Gates Foundation has invested hundreds of millions of dollars in China so far, including funding research, HIV / AIDS, TB and tobacco control. But you're right. We put more money into India and Africa. In fact, few charities have invested as much as we do. Part of the reason is that India and Africa face far more serious health challenges than China. Many African countries have child mortality rates more than 10 times higher than China's. We are concerned about our work in China and our cooperation with China. The partnership is very proud, In TB prevention and control alone [for more details see the Foundation's China presentation (slide 6)] we have made remarkable achievements in one area. We also want to push for more progress in other areas, too. Including the assistance I mentioned just now to help the FDA to meet the global regulatory standards as soon as possible, and the ongoing drug development work being carried out by the Global Health Drug Research and Development Center, these will have a very positive impact not only on China, but also on other countries.
In short, we think the foundation's work is having a big impact. As China and India's economies continue to grow, we're going to have a higher proportion of philanthropic spending in Africa, because Africa has not only a high rate of population growth. And some of the world's poorest countries are in Africa.
Phoenix Weekly: good afternoon, Mr. Gates! I have a question about poverty eradication. You have said that you have confidence in eradicating poverty by 2030. China has made great efforts to promote global poverty eradication. Also committed to eradicate extreme poverty in China by 2020. However, there are still 43 million rural people living in poverty in China. Are you still optimistic about eradicating poverty? what do you think of China's progress?
Bill Gates: the world has made amazing progress in reducing poverty, especially in China. The Chinese government has also set an ambitious goal to eradicate extreme poverty. We are also discussing with the government how to help China achieve this goal. We are very happy to be able to cooperate with the Chinese government in this respect. Of course, eradicating extreme poverty is only the beginning, and we will have to deal with poverty and inequality in the future. I believe that improvements in China's progressive tax system and inheritance tax can make society fairer, and the eradication of extreme poverty is a starting point.
In fact, the total eradication of poverty is a rather complex concept. If someone suffers from mental illness, or is addicted to alcohol or drugs, We also need to help those who are most in need. So I firmly believe that the world will make more progress in reducing poverty, but it is too early to say that poverty will be eradicated altogether.
Caixin Media: I'm sure a lot of people are asking you questions about the Trump administration, and I want to ask, too. The Trump administration is proposing to reduce the U.S. foreign aid budget. And threaten to cut budgets even more sharply in the future. The Gates Foundation has been emphasizing working with governments, so what is the impact of this on the foundation's global work? If you personally had a chance to convince President Trump, how would you convince him?
Bill Gates: of course, we have a lot of faith in the power of foreign aid, because foreign aid is only a small part of the national budget. But it can make a big difference. The good news is that the U.S. government has not cut its foreign aid budget, and it is currently around $30 billion a year. But Congress decided to keep the budget. Even if the foreign aid budget is cut-- and I hope it won't happen-- it doesn't mean that the foundation's key programs with partners will be scaled back, not just with the United States government. There are also partnerships with many other governments, including projects with the Chinese government to improve health.
At present, the United States is the largest source of funding for AIDS prevention and control, mainly through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFARP). This is a bilateral project, and it is also a fight against AIDS. The Global Fund for Tuberculosis and Malaria is the largest source of funding. The drugs purchased by the project enable the survival of more than 15 million people living with HIV worldwide. If the global AIDS prevention and control fund is reduced by 10% in the next five years, by 2030, more than 5 million additional people will have lost their lives. So foreign aid is a very important sum of money. European governments are also very generous, and some countries have foreign aid budgets that exceed or even more than 0.7 percent of national GDP. Of course, even in these countries, we need to make sure people know that money is not wasted. To make them proud of the impact of aid funding, And I want them to be proud of the tough criteria we've followed in choosing funding areas and partners. It's a testament to the impact of foreign aid. I've only seen Trump twice. In both meetings, I spoke about my views on foreign aid, including why foreign aid is good not only for the world, but also for the United States itself.
Southern weekend: Hello, Mr. Gates! The foundation has long helped China modernize and internationalize the pharmaceutical industry, so what are the challenges in the process? What is the thorniest question?
Bill Gates: we've had successful partnerships with Chinese companies, including supporting Zhongsheng Group 10 years ago to develop and produce the Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Now it's been used in many countries. Recently, The bivalent polio vaccine successfully developed by Zhongsheng Group has also been pre-certified by the World Health Organization and will play an important role in the global polio eradication campaign.
In addition, we have cooperated to set up a global health drug research and development center in Beijing. With our and government funds, including those of the Beijing municipal government, we are promoting the development of drugs, such as drugs for tuberculosis. We can see that, China not only has strong scientific research strength, but also has introduced many measures to increase investment in basic research and encourage related investment, so China has great potential.
If there is a challenge, perhaps China's pharmaceutical regulation is one, that is, the work of China's Food and Drug Administration, an agency that corresponds to the FDA in the United States. Because its regulatory standards are different from international standards, So we're going to face some complicated situations in pushing China's innovation to the world, and we need to introduce WHO to review factory conditions and production processes, although that's an option. But it often takes a long time. If a similar situation occurs in the United States, pharmaceutical products can automatically be certified by WHO standards only after they have been approved by the United States FDA. Therefore, we are working with the FDA. It will not only help improve the quality of Chinese medicines and food, but also enable Chinese companies with high-quality vaccine or drug production capacity to supply products to poor countries at affordable prices. We have been working with the General Administration of Food and Drug Administration in this area since a few years ago, and the government has made progress in all aspects of this work as a top priority. This will enable China to make a greater contribution to global health.
Finance and economics: Hello, Mr Gates! You mentioned at the JPMorgan Health Summit that you are committed to reducing inequality in global health, and that the world needs more innovation to achieve that goal. However, many innovative drugs and treatments are now very expensive. For example, CAR-T cell therapy costs as much as $800,000. How do you think technological innovation should be used to make more health care more accessible? What advice do you have on technological innovation?
Bill Gates: the Foundation has been actively working to reduce the cost of some overly expensive drugs and vaccines. For example, we have guaranteed sales worth more than $400 million for a first-rate new HIV treatment. Help manufacturers optimize production costs, and now patients can get treatment for less than $100 a year. We're looking for low-cost manufacturers to help them cover part of their R & D budgets. We've developed low-cost cholera vaccines and typhoid vaccines, like drugs for heart disease. We funded our partner, Tom Frieden, in an effort to get blood pressure drugs to reach poor countries at lower prices. Many new medical inventions are expensive at first, but we hope to accelerate the cost reduction process. Let these inventions benefit all of us and help us achieve our goal of health equality. In poor countries, we start with the most burdensome diseases, which are still dominated by infectious diseases. In the long run, of course, We hope to extend this approach to all other disease types and ultimately achieve health equality.
Character: Hello, Mr. Gates! I'm interested in giving away. I know you're very good at persuading rich people to join the list, and there are already three Chinese names on the list. That's good, of course. But they are not the richest people in China. I believe you know the people who have the most money in China. Have you ever persuaded them to join in? Are they interested in this? If you are not interested, what do you think the problem is? What are the reasons preventing them from making such a decision?
Bill Gate: of course, charity is a voluntary decision. I love to discuss the impact of charity and charity and others, how to find the fun and sense of achievement from the charity, including to do charity together with your spouse. Had to admit that, compared with other countries, I have been in the mobilization of successful people in the United States do better therefore, every time I come to Chinese, I look forward to charity in the official visit will continue to be an important topic of discussion for me. And I also China philanthropists co founded the Shenzhen international public school [for more detailed information please refer to the material foundation Chinese (slide first and eleventh pages) and the school's official website ", aimed at to explore the best practice and characteristics of Chinese charity industry.
The government can introduce policies to make philanthropy more attractive, such as simplifying the process of registering charities, introducing tax incentives, etc. Therefore, there are some areas of interest to the government. We also shared what the foundation has done in other countries. I am very optimistic about the development of the charity industry in China. I believe that many successful people in China will choose to donate their wealth. A few years ago, No Chinese have joined the pledge [see the official website for more information on the pledge], but as the dialogue intensifies, We see a great example. China and India are going to be the fastest growing members of the pledge, and that's just right. I'll try to talk to more people, and I'll try to do better.
The first Financial Daily: good morning, Mr. Gates. There is widespread concern that on middle of 2018 there will not only be a traditional trade war between the United States and the United States. There will also be a "cold war" on intellectual property and technology transfer, such as the 301 investigation initiated by the Trump administration and other bills introduced by Congress. I know that you personally and the foundation are committed to promoting innovation in China. And strengthen international cooperation in technology. So how do you persuade the leaders of China and the United States to cooperate more in intellectual property rights and technology rather than confrontation?
Bill Gates: the relationship between the United States and China is indeed very complex and very important. I believe that there are many leaders of the two countries, as well as myself, who want a sustained dialogue between the two countries to work together on some global issues. Whether it is global health or climate change, it will also make the people of the United States and China realize that cooperation is mutually beneficial.
I cannot personally resolve the differences between the United States and China on a number of issues, including in the economic sphere. But I believe the relationship between the two countries will continue to be strong. My investment in Tara Energy is working with China to develop 4th generations of nuclear energy.Microsoft 公司总部所在地：美国 主要业务：软件 There are many benefits for Microsoft and China. Some researchers have been well trained there and have developed very well after leaving.
Every year, the U.S.-China relationship faces different challenges, but overall it is very strong and positive. I will do my best to speak out for the U.S.-China relationship, and I earnestly hope that it will develop well.
Xinhua News Agency: Mr. Gates, cancer is still one of the two biggest killers in the world. Do you think there will be a breakthrough in cancer treatment in the next few years? Will the Gates Foundation increase its investment in this area? My other question is, you were elected a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering last year. What will you do about it?
Bill Gates: it was a great honor for me to be elected to the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and it gave me a formal channel of communication and discussion with other academicians, and I value this opportunity very much. I will make full use of this opportunity to communicate with them during my visit to China.
The foundation has done a lot of work in the area of cancer. Smoking is still the leading cause of lung cancer, and lung cancer is one of the biggest health killers. So we're investing a lot of money in tobacco control. Strive to reduce lung cancer deaths from smoking.
Another cancer area the foundation focuses on is cervical cancer. (for more information, see the Foundation's China presentation (slide 23).) We are committed to low-cost cervical cancer vaccines and low-cost treatments. We have also invested in the development of hepatitis B vaccines, Help prevent liver cancer. With the advent of low-cost cancer treatments, our goal is to ensure that everyone has access to such treatment.
The U.S. government spends more than $6 billion a year on cancer research, and that alone is more than the foundation's annual grant. That's good enough to develop treatments like CAR T cells. And ultimately reduce the cost of treatment. We used to focus more on infectious diseases, but now we are also deeply involved in developing and implementing some low-cost interventions for cancer.
The Public Service Times: in your annual letter of 2015, "our Big bets on the Future," [see the 2015 Gates letter for more information], you mentioned that by 2030, the number of child deaths will halve. Now three years have passed. How far are we from this goal? What are the obstacles preventing us from achieving this goal?
Bill Gates : This is a very good question . To reduce the number of children to below 2.5 million , we have made considerable progress in all aspects affecting the death of children . We have achieved good results , like diarrhoea and pneumonia , and we are also aware of those pathogens , so we must ensure that more children are vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae and that more children are vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae ; and we also know clearly how to cope with diseases like typhoid and cholera .
Malaria is another major single disease killer that affects child mortality. The number of malaria deaths has not fallen much in the past few years, and we need new impregnated mosquito nets for drug resistance. And upgrade the existing insecticides. We must actually increase malaria control efforts. Malaria causes about 500,000 child deaths every year, accounting for 1/10 of the world's child deaths. So we have to bring that down. We haven't made much progress in the last few years for a variety of reasons.
Another more important aspect is the first 30 days after birth, which I mentioned earlier, that is, what we call neonatal death. There are many causes of neonatal death. Previous statistics have shown that they include congenital defects, asphyxia and septicemia. But with these simple categories of symptoms, we can't figure out how to prevent them, such as whether we should vaccinate our mothers in the third trimester of pregnancy by keeping our newborns warm. And the use of antibiotics to save children's lives. To that end, we are currently building a database of data and information about neonatal deaths. For example, we have found that mothers are given birth in medical facilities and are kept sterile. Effective handling of dystocia or even caesarean sections and ensuring adequate oxygen supplies can help. We need to make more areas available and use these tools and provide appropriate training to ensure the quality of service.
I can ' t accurately predict whether the number of child deaths can be reduced by half by 2030 , but I know that there are many projects and jobs that can be implemented to help us achieve this goal . We do , in many pilot areas , reduce the number of children . The problem is whether we can scale these successful experiences on a large scale and achieve the ultimate goal . The problem is whether we can scale out these successful experiences on a large scale , but this is a very difficult challenge . I am afraid that we will eventually be able to do it , but I am excited about the ongoing research and the results of the project .
Shell net: Hello, Mr. Gates! There are a lot of economists who think charity doesn't work. Have you discussed the value and utility of charity with others? Why do you and Ms. Melinda think that philanthropy can do things that governments and businesses can't?
Bill Gates: philanthropy is a unique industry, much smaller than either the private sector or the government. Even in the United States, where philanthropy is the largest, philanthropy accounts for only 2 percent of the economy-- environmental protection, culture, religion. Education and medical research are not more than 2 percent of the economy. But every sector has a unique role to play, for example, in the great movement of the Green Revolution, which creates better seeds. Doubling the world's major food crop production, including rice and corn. The Green Revolution was supported by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Ford Foundation, helping to save Asia from famine between 0th century and 80s. Food intake has also risen. India and Pakistan have grown improved seeds, and China has benefited from the green revolution, especially since China's economic reform in 80s.
So, philanthropy has brought a lot of good results, including scholarships, orphan aid, disability assistance, environmental awareness, and so on. Although it's only a small part of the economy, the charity sector is pushing for new ideas. There is a very unique role to play in pushing things that governments are unlikely to do. And many countries envy the important role that philanthropy plays here. I see the rise of philanthropy around the world. Partly because people become richer, partly because people see the role that philanthropy can play. There are many innovative philanthropists in Asia, including China and India. So I'm also happy to see what they've done in every field, so some of the big moves and achievements in the field of philanthropy can prove the value of philanthropy.