Physicists have created a new form of matter, which not only exhibits periodic structures in space but also in time.Scientists call it a "time crystal" - a substance that was once thought to be impossible.
Now, however, two independent studies have been successful in creating time crystals and published in peer-reviewed journals.
Physicists say,Time crystals have opened up a whole new world of non-equilibrium matter, and one day it could be used to develop super secure quantum computers.
Although the atoms of crystals, such as ice or diamond, are arranged in a certain periodic structure in space, the crystal structure of the time crystals is repeated in the time dimension. According to the researchers, the repetition of the time dimension seems to violate the laws of nature.
In an experiment with the joint quantum Institute (JQI) at University of Maryland, the researchers worked with a team at the University of California at Berkeley,To create the time crystals by three types of laser induced in a ten ytterbium ion in the chain driving behavior.
They use laser pulses to bombard the ionized atoms to create a magnetic field, and use another laser to flip the spin of the atom. And then repeat the process over and over again, and eventually the atoms go into a time reversal mode.
And, the research team found that Yb is exactly the reverse cycle laser driving cycle 2 times. This is really amazing, just like a person playing the piano keys two times per second, but the sound is only a second.
The second groups of researchers from the Harvard University have also worked with Berkeley physicist Norman Yao, who has developed a time crystal using artificial diamond artificial lattices. Although the methods are different, they have succeeded in creating time crystals.
The results of the two studies were published in this week's issue of the journal Nature (Nature).
This strange time crystals are made up of interacting atoms that never reach the equilibrium state of heat and are repeated over time and space.
However, the researchers explain that it is not enough to repeat. If you put a lot of billiard balls on a billiard table, the distance of each billiard ball is 10 cm Obviously not, just a little shaking billiard table, this structure will fall apart. In order to maintain the integrity of the structure, the crystal will need to have enough stable rhythm.
The concept of time crystals was born in 2012, first proposed by physicist Frank Wilczek. With the recent breakthrough in research, physicists believe that the time of the crystal for future quantum computing will also help.
Monroe, a physicist who was involved in the study, said that the new state of matter comes from the complex interplay of many quantum controls at a single atomic level. Christopher.
However, time crystals may also be used in some solid state devices, so a general understanding of this phenomenon will help to introduce such a system into future quantum devices.